Tag: USSR

ChernobylIn the early morning hours of April 26, 1986, engineers at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Pripyat, Ukraine, began the process of conducting a test of Reactor No. 4.  Unwilling to postpone the test another year, engineers pushed forward under questionable circumstances that proved to have deadly consequences.  Within minutes, disaster struck as a thunderous roar and cataclysmic explosion were felt and heard throughout the facility.  The eruption of the reactor resulted in a complete implosion and the propulsion of a radioactive dust cloud into the atmosphere.   Instantly, Soviet officials set in motion an official coverup of the disaster in an attempt to keep the news of the reactor’s meltdown from reaching western news outlets. On the surface,  the Politburo maintained the image of business as usual, but behind the scenes it was pandemonium. In the days and weeks that followed, the people of Pripyat looked death in the face as the reality of the nuclear fallout become terrifyingly clear.   Within days, cross-winds moving across Europe carried the dust cloud across several countries, setting off alarm bells as radiation dosimeters showed readings that were literally off the charts.  Before long, it became clear that a nuclear disaster had occurred and the most likely source was somewhere in the Soviet Union.   Soviet authorities pulled out all the stops in denying anything was amiss but the truth began to leak out and forced Moscow to make troubling admissions.   These events an those that followed have become known as the Chernobyl disaster and that story is told here again by author Adam Higginbotham who tells what is perhaps, the full story behind the world’s worst nuclear disaster.

More than thirty years have passed since the tragedy at Chernobyl and the names of those who responded to the emergency have faded over time.  Some of them are still alive but many others are no longer here, having joined the long list of victims who lost their lives from exposure to radiation in the wake of the meltdown.   Their stories are told here, showing the many sides of a tragedy that shocked the world.  And by the end of the book, their names will become seared into the reader’s memory as the key figures that are forever tied to the legacy of Chernobyl.  The author has done a great service in keeping their memories alive and in the process ensures that they are never forgotten as time passes and the world continues to move forward.

The amount of research that went into this book is staggering and Higginbotham was able to personally interview several individuals including the former director of Chernobyl, Viktor Brukhanov, who has publicly stated that officials covered-up the disaster for twenty years.   Brukhanov was not there the night of the test but his position as director resulted in his conviction for negligence and a ten-year prison sentence of which he served five. His conviction was one of several obtained by officials as scapegoats became the focus of Moscow.  The reality is that the meltdown was the result of a series of events that Higginbotham explores in detail leading up to that fateful night.  And the true story is simply astounding.

Undoubtedly, the disaster itself is the focus of the story but the book is also a step back into the closed-door mindset of the USSR and its iron grip over the Soviet Republics.  The policies of Mikhail Gorbachev were put to the test as old-school hardliners battled younger party members who saw the world through a different lens.  Communism, the Cold War, deception and gross negligence all play a role in the story and will cause readers to stare in disbelief.   Those of us who are old enough to remember the events as they played out will recall the events that transpired as news of the meltdown trickled out of the USSR.   But as Higginbotham shows, the information that became known to western nations was only part of the story.  And even former International Atomic Energy Agency director Hans Blix, did not know the full extent of the damage.  Figures put forward by Moscow were often intentionally skewed in an effort to downplay the severity of the reactor’s destruction.   The Politburo was determined to restrict as much information as possible and the fierce battles between party members highlights the system of dysfunction that existed, partly based on the belief in Soviet superiority over its U.S. counterpart.

From start to finish, I found myself glued to the book as the story continued to unfold.  And although I vividly remember the story as it broke in 1986, I learned a significant amount of new information in the book.  To help the reader, Higginbotham provides detailed explanations regarding radiation exposure which are crucial to understanding the severity of the recovery effort and the physical deterioration of those who directly participated in saving the plant.  None of the workers and responders were able to completely recover and struggled in later years with failing health and painfully slow deaths.  Thousands of men, women and children were exposed to radiation but the full number is probably far higher than Soviet officials were ever willing to admit.  Incredibly, officials resisted calls to evacuate Pripyat, believing such an act would be an admission that the situation was grave.  But as the truth became clear, officials were left with no choice and forced to evacuate the city which remains abandoned to this day.

Chernobyl has become the poster child for disasters involving nuclear disasters with its Ferris wheel and main building become bone-chilling landmarks from the city that is uninhabitable.  Pripyat has become so embedded in pop culture that it served as the setting for one of the chapters in the hit game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare.  Today, there are those who visit Pripyat as explorers curious to see the fallout of a nuclear disaster in person.   And while the fourth reactor has been encased since 1986 in a protective shell to contain radiation, the surrounding areas still contains various amounts of contamination. Images and videos from visitors, show the  dark and desolate landscape of a once thriving city.   The sadness with which residents left Pripyat is captured by the author showing the multiple effects of the fallout, even to those who had not been exposed to lethal dosages of radiation.

Engineers have made significant advancements in safety procedures used to secure nuclear facilities.   Nuclear power, when used correctly, is considered a clean technology. It emits no carbon dioxide in the atmosphere but a meltdown as shown here, would have devastating consequences.   The average person has little reason to think about nuclear power, but less than forty years ago,  the horror of a nuclear meltdown became frighteningly real and forced every nation that uses nuclear power to rethink its course going forward.  The danger of another Chernobyl has not left us and a meltdown could once again happen at some point in the future.  But I believe that if we remember the story of Chernobyl, re-told beautifully in this excellent compendium by Higginbotham, then we do have a high chance of preventing another Chernobyl before it has a chance to happen.

Towards the end of the book, the author also shows how the effects of Chernobyl played a role in the disintegration of the USSR as the Soviet Republics moved for independence.  Ukraine’s struggle is well-known and to this day, Russia has continually tried to exert its influence over its smaller-sized neighbor.  Chernobyl revealed a significant crack in the official facade of Soviet invincibility and changed the way the world viewed nuclear power.  Those who want to know what really happened on the night of April 25, 1986, and in the months that followed, will find the answers they seek and more here in this well-written and highly informative account of an event that should never be forgotten.

ASIN: B07GNV7PNH

Soviet Union

GessenIn December, 1991,  the unthinkable happened as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) dissolved into fifteen separate countries.   Known informally as the Soviet Union, the USSR seemed at times indestructible to those viewing the union from abroad.  But within dissension had been brewing for many years in the wake of the tyrannical reign of Joseph Stalin (1878-1953).  His successors embarked on a period of de-Stalinization that thrived under the administration of Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (1894-1971).  The Soviet Union remained a superpower and in direct competition with arch-rival the United States.  It dissolution shocked the world and left the future of the former Soviet republics in limbo.  In the aftermath of the monumental and historic collapse, the individual republics established their own rights to self-governance and in some cases, completely rejected Russian rule. Tensions between many of the nations continues to this day.  Currently, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin serves as the President of Russia, and is as much of a controversial figure as many of his predecessors.  His appointment by late President Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (1931-2007) gave many Russians hope that a new direction was in store for the beloved country.   Today, as we look back at the time that has passed since he was chosen to lead Russia, we can see a tortured nation still suffering from systematic oppression and what is rightly described in this book as totalitarianism.

In 2017, Gessen was hired by The New Yorker magazine as a stiff writer and she continues to be a leading voice for LGBT causes in her homeland of Russia.   She hails from Moscow and is acutely aware of the persecution that she and many others face because of their sexual orientation.  In Russia, the government embarked on a crusade against the LGBT community that began to flourish in the 1990s with the passing legislation against “homosexual propaganda”.  The change in society which gave license to open discrimination of LGBT citizens is nothing short of barbaric.  The murder of Vladislav Tornovoy marked a point of no return and although outrage at the crime was widespread, homophobia continued to increase.  There are many ugly truths to be told and this phenomenal book that reveals the dark side behind the Iron Curtain, we can see first hand how Russia missed its opportunity to move away from the iron grip of Leninism and embrace democratic ideas. Some Russians undoubtedly wish to return to the Soviet days while younger Russians wish to move forward and transform Russia into a country of which they can be proud.  To understand life in the Soviet Union and in new Russian society, Gessen interviewed several individuals, each with their own story to tell that will prove to be riveting to readers.  Their names are Lyosha, Masha, Seryozha, and Zhanna and they each devoted a year of their time to tell Gessen about the Russia they know and in some cases, have left.  Zhanna may be familiar to some readers as the daughter of  Boris Yefimovich Nemtsov (1959-2015) who served as the First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia under Boris Yeltsin.

Gessen takes up deep inside their lives in post-Cold War Russia as Perestroika becomes of the official policy of Moscow.  It is cited as one of the reasons of the fall of the USSR and a major factor in the resurgence of totalitarianism.  The debate will continue for years but what is clearly apparent is that life in the Soviet Union was one of hardship, poverty and the loss of hope.  These stories should remove any illusions readers may have of a high quality of life for the average Russian citizen.  This is a sobering look at the daily struggles Russians face and the relentless abolition of individual liberties.  Homosexuals became easy scapegoats and in the book, we follow Lyosha and his struggle to maintain a stable life in the midst of fierce homophobia supported and encouraged by official government policy.  Masha and Zhanna would later become voices for the opposition while Seryozha would come to learn about the privileges attached to his family’s residence in “Czar Village”.   Each faced their own struggles and their anecdotes reveal the dark transformation of Russian society as the departing Boris Yeltsin hands over the reigns to the former director of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB).  Putin wasted no time as President of Russia and has placed the country in a vice grip, showing no signs of relinquishing his hold on power.

Where this book truly excels, is the author’s clarity in explaining the failures of Moscow post-Stalin and the importance of neighboring Crimea and Ukraine.  Both territories have become hotbed issues during Putin’s presidency and increased tensions between Moscow and Washington, with the latter establishing punishing sanctions.  The promise of hope, which existed for a brief time in Russia, seems to be receding on a regular basis as the Kremlin extends its totalitarian grip as far as it possibly can.  Many have fled Russia, making a home in other parts of Europe and Brighton Beach, a small enclave in my hometown of Brooklyn, New York.  As the author points out, Seryozha stopped responding to her messages in 2015, but the others have each made the tough decision to leave the places they called home in search of a better life, free from the grip of Putin’s regime.  Slander, political oppression and even assassination, are hallmarks of Putin’s tactics to stifle the voices of perceived enemies of the state.  Large numbers of expats will not return to Russia as long as Vladimir Putin remains determined to keep the men and women of their homeland held firmly in subjugation.  Gessen has dared to speak out, risking persecution that has plagued other brave voices that have done their best to expose the facade created to cover the realities of Russian society.   Opposition of any kind is not tolerated and the descriptions in the book of the actions towards those who dared to speak out have the markings of the classic police state.

Many misconceptions about Russia exist, mainly due to incorrect reporting and propaganda released by the Kremlin.  But as we can see through Gessen’s work, life in Russia is quite different from the image the has been projected by officials. Persecution, oppression and famine are just some of the daily factors that make life in Russia a hard one to live.  Deception and mistrust have become widespread and are eerily similar to the climate of suspicion created the Third Reich.  The Soviet Union is long gone and in spite of Putin’s agenda,  it will never again rise to the heights that it reached during the Cold War.  And as the younger generation of Russians continue to find ways to make their voices heard, Russia will be faced again with a moment of monumental change.  But in order for it to move forward, the people will have to ask what kind of Russia do they want for future generations?  Do they want a true democracy or do they wish to endure several decades of rule by Vladimir Putin?  The voices in the book have made their positions clear.  It remains to be seen if anyone truly listens.   They know the Russia that you and I have only read about.  The Russia they know is a cold place, mostly closed off from the outside world and a nation that can never shake the ghost of Joseph Stalin and his mentor Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870-1924), known to the world as Vladimir Lenin.   But if Russia chooses to listen, the message is loud and clear that the future is history.

ASIN: B06XQZPVDD

Soviet Union