Category Archives: Biographies

My Life, My Love, My Legacy – Coretta Scott King

corettaI find that as I age, I am more focused on historical events that changed the course of America, in particular from Black Americans.   It has been said that in order to know where you are going, you have to know where you come from.   For millions of Black Americans, the question of identity has been a difficult one to answer.  Some prefer the term African-American while others prefer Black-American.  And there are some who prefer Afro-American or just simply Black.  Regardless of the label, there is a shared history of pain, struggle and the never ending goal for full integration American society.  Over the past fifty years, tremendous progress has been made in the United States but there is still much work to be done.  But one of the greatest things about America is our ability to correct and learn from mistakes that have lingered for too long.  The young generation of today lives in a world far removed from only twenty years ago.  Their world is one in which technology is ingrained and life moves at an even faster pace.  My father often thinks back to the period of integration and the times where it seemed as if America was going to tear itself apart.   Even to him, as a kid it seemed as if the accomplishments by Black Americans over the years were just a pipe dream.

The Civil Rights Movement was a platform not just for Black-Americans but for all people that had been denied basic civil rights to which everyone is entitled, whether here in the United States or around the world.  Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., has always been seen as the “leader” of the American movement.  The reality is that he was one of endless figures who displayed unparalleled bravery and dedication.  But he is easily the most recognizable.  But behind him, was his wife Coretta Scott King (1927-2006), who in later years became even more vocal in her commitment to Dr. King’s legacy and the movement they both believed in.  This book is her autobiography so that the world can learn more not about Mrs. King but about Coretta.

Her story begins in 1927, in the small town of Heiberger, Alabama during the Jim-Crow Era.  Readers sensitive to the subject matter might find this part of the book a little unnerving.   Although there are some low points, there are equally many high points as well and the pride and dignity with which the Scott family carried itself offsets the darker memories that she recalls.  From an early age, she is independent, tough and open to change.  Those traits would prove to be invaluable later in life when a young bachelor named Martin Luther King, Jr., walked into her life.  It is at this point in the book that the story picks up speed at an extraordinary pace.

Martin’s story is well-known and he remains one of the most iconic figures in world history so I do not think it is necessary to go into detail about his life in this post.  Plus, Coretta does that for us but not in the position of a biographer, but simply as his wife and the mother of their four children.   This is the behind the scenes look into their very private life which might surprise some.  In contrast to the public version of Dr. King which was cool, controlled and always prophetic, the version shown by Coretta is humble, playful, a homemaker, a prankster and a father.   The movement is never far away and Coretta explains early on that they both believed that the movement was a higher calling than anything else.  And each would maintain that belief until the end of their lives.

As the story moves into the 1960s, the movement gains momentum and Coretta revisits all of the critical moments that changed America.  The bus boycotts, Rosa Parks (1913-2005), Bull Connor (1897-1973) and Jim Sharp (1922-2007) are just some of the events and figures that she discusses.  She also discusses the much darker moments that occurred such as a the murders of John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X, Robert F. Kennedy and her beloved Martin, whose death rattled the globe and changed her life permanently.  Following his assassination, she became the heir apparent to the King legacy and she has never wavered in that task.

The book changes gears after Martin’s death and the focus shifts primarily back on Coretta. Her children also come into sharper focus and she discusses how each responded to their father’s death and what he meant to them.  Although Martin was gone, Coretta was still in high demand and the movement never stopped.  Her circle of friends and acquaintances changes slightly but the core group of support remains intact.  Later in her years, she finds herself in what some would call the widow’s club but to her, it was far from that.  She was a survivor of the movement who understood that death was a constant threat to anyone who dared to challenge the system.

There is one part of the book that did strike me and that was her discussion of rumors of Martin’s infidelity.   Accounts of philandering, allegedly picked up through FBI wiretaps has circulated for years.   It is true that tapes were mailed to their house and Coretta elaborates on what they contained.   She also has choice words for J. Edgar Hoover and his bureau.   King’s friend Ralph Abernathy (1926-1990) comes under fire here for his statements in his autobiography And The Walls Came Tumbling Down wherein he discusses Martin’s transgressions.  Coretta remains firm in her beliefs about Martin’s actions outside the home and Abernathy never changed his position.  All are now deceased, leaving us without the opportunity to clear up the issue.  What I can say is that I have never seen any photo evidence of such activity and the main source for the information came from the very agency whose job it was to discredit him.  I will leave the issue up to the reader to research.

Dick Gregory once said that Black History is American History.   One month in February does not come close to telling the full story.  But that is easily circumvented through books such as this, written by those who were present during the defining moments in the American experience.   Coretta is no longer with us, but her words of wisdom and guidance remain as a light to lead us through our darkest times, some of which have yet to come.  Highly recommended.

ISBN-10: 1627795987
ISBN-13: 978-1627795982

Bonhoeffer: Pastor, Martyr, Prophet, Spy – Eric Metaxas

 

DietrichThe Second World War remains one of the most studied and brutal conflicts in the history of man.   The rise and fall of Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich have become a case studies for history buffs and students learning about a war that nearly resulted in the complete destruction of Germany and the continent of Europe. It is true that Hitler had many supporters but he also had large numbers of detractors, some of whom were serving in his own army.  The attack of personal liberties and treasured institutions, caused shock and consternation across Germany.  The persecution of the Catholic church by the National Socialists is among Hitler’s darkest deeds.  Throughout the war, Hitler would ramp up his attacks on the church and his bloodthirsty purge of religion knew no bounds.  The horror with which the clergy watched the rise of the Third Reich spurred many to action and they were determined to rid Germany and the world of the man they saw as the very incarnation of evil.  Among them was Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945), the man who became a pastor, martyr, prophet and spy.

Before reading this book, I had never head of Bonhoeffer.  I did know of Hitler’s persecution of the church and his never ending attacks on anyone deemed to be against the Reich.  This excellent biography by author Eric Metaxas came as a recommendation on Amazon and encouraged me to revisit Nazi Germany.  From start to finish, the book is seductively intriguing and it caused me to wonder why Bonhoeffer’s story is not more widely known.  In history classes, his name was never discussed and in none of the specials I watched regarding the war, was he ever mentioned.  But having finished the book, I can say with certainty that his story and that of the resistance by the Catholics opposed to Hitler, is a side of the war that needs much further exploration and exposure.

History continues to examine how and why Adolf Hitler was able to seize control of Germany and plunge the world into yet another major conflict.  By nearly all accounts, he was initially viewed as a mere distraction in politics and his group of brown shirts were seen as thugs determined to interfere with important elections.   The Beer Hall Putsch nearly cost Hitler his life but even that was not enough to deter the Austrian menace.  Hitler had a sharp eye with regards to social changes and human nature.   As Paul Von Hindenburg (1847-1934) saw the end of his life near,  he made one decision that change the course of world history and for the German people, cast upon them a stain that Germany may never be able to remove.   Some Germans saw the writing on the wall and left the country before Hitler unleashed his wave of tyranny and insanity.  Others remained and for those of Jewish heritage, the genocidal Final Solution would result in a horror that one will ever be able to forget.

Hitler’s promotion to Chancellor of Germany was the moment the Austrian had been waiting for and the Nazis wasted no time in enforcing new laws based on racial ideology.  The Nuremberg Laws and others that not only stripped Jews of their rights but in the process made them second class citizenst shocked many Germans.  The persecution of the Jews eventually reached the church, which would have to make a decision regarding the growing menace from Berlin.  Bonhoeffer had come to embrace the teachings of the church and his beliefs would lead him on a course that no one thought possible for a man of the cloth.  But his story is among of the most fascinating that I have ever read.  Metaxas presents his life beautifully here and includes many of Bonhoeffer’s writings to show the mindset and the very personal side of a man who followed the path of God while at the same time joined several plots to assassinate Hitler.

The thought of a pastor assisting in an assassination plot is simply astounding.  But Bonhoeffer was not living in ordinary times and Germany was under siege and caught in the grip of a madman whose only goal was world domination.   Metaxas does an incredible job of not only capturing Bonhoeffer’s life but also revisits key moments in the advancement of Hitler’s agenda.   The two sides are on a collision course and the plotters knew they would have to act at some point in time.  Bonhoeffer is firmly entrenched in it all while at the same time, holding on to his convictions and proving to many why he was such a beloved figure by those who knew him well.

As the author told Bonhoeffer’s story, I found myself in amazement at the things that I learned.   Bonhoeffer was multi-lingual, an excellent writer, world traveler and a strong advocate for civil rights as a result of his two visits to America.  His experiences in Harlem were surely eye opening for a New York such as myself.  But what really struck me the most was his calm ability to accept the fate that he knew awaited him.   His prophetic nature is on display early in his writings and his final act is a testament to his commitment to the word of the lord.  His words are touching and uplifting.  And his observations about the world he embraced are still relevant today.   Long before Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Bonhoeffer saw the direction that would be needed for true change to occur in America and for Black Americans to have equal rights under the law.  How ironic it is that the horrors he saw in America were slowly being replicated and in some cases surpassed by the devious and sadistic officials of Hitler’s inner circle.

To say the book is well-written would be an understatement. If you are curious about the Third Reich and the impact it had on German religion, then this book is a good place to start. Further, the book is not only Bonhoeffer’s story but that of many others including Hitler himself.  World War II buffs will absolutely love this book.  Bonhoeffer’s story is inspiring yet tragic but one that is integral to the history of Nazi Germany.  And in this soul-reaching biography, Eric Metaxas has given Bonhoeffer his rightful place in the annals of Germany history.

ASIN: B003GY0K48

Lenin: The Man, the Dictator, and the Master of Terror – Victor Sebestyen

vlThe dissolution of the United Soviet Social Republics (USSR) remains one of the most important and world changing moments in history.  The lowering of the hammer and sickle on December 26, 1991, was the end of seventy-four years of Soviet dominance over Eastern Europe.  But the remnants of the Soviet Union can still be found today and the ghost of its founder,  Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870-1924), continues to haunt Russia. In Red Square, Moscow, Lenin’s corpse remains on permanent display and is maintained by a full-time staff of technicians.  To believers in the old-guard and Marxism, Lenin is the eternal leader of the Bolshevik revolution. To his detractors, he was madman who unleashed a wave of terror and was  outdone only by his successor Joseph Stalin (1878-1953). Undoubtedly,  Stalin ruled the Soviet Union with an iron grip built upon fear, intimidation and murder.  But those tactics were not new methods of operation, having been in use long before he took power.  During the reign of the Soviet Union, information regarding Lenin’s private life was kept secret and only the most privileged of researchers were able to see any official records.   The passage of time and change in attitudes had resulted in the disclosure of Soviet records that many thought would never be revealed.  The thaw which began with Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) has allowed the world to learn the truth behind the Iron Curtain.  Author Victor Sebestyen has taken another look at Lenin’s life in this well-researched and revealing biography of the iconic and infamous Soviet leader.

It is not a requirement but I do believe that basic knowledge of the former Soviet Union will make the book even more enjoyable to the reader.   There are many figures in the story, some of whom became pivotal figures in Soviet and world history.  From the start, the book is intriguing and the author’s writing style sets the perfect tone for the book.  Furthermore, at the end of each chapter are the footnotes which help aid the reader in following the narrative and developing a mental picture of the tense political climate that existed in Russia at the beginning of the 1900s.

Prior to reading the book, I had learned a significant amount of information regarding Lenin’s life but the story told here is simply astounding. Sebestyen leaves no stone unearthed, fully disclosing the sensitive parts of Lenin’s life including his marriage to Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya (1969-1939) and relationship with Inessa Armand (1874-1920).   And as the author points out, Nadezhda or “Nadya”,  was a supportive and valued voice in Lenin’s circle.  Her comments throughout the book shed light on Lenin’s very private side and her commitment to the revolution and Lenin’s ideology made her a celebrated figure in her own right.  She remained committed to Lenin after his death and up until her own in 1939.

Lenin’s early life is examined in through detail and reveals an interesting figure but highly unorthodox and complex.  Ideology becomes a major focus of his life and his series of odd jobs come to an end when he finds his true calling as the man destined to lead the Bolshevik Revolution. But his path to get there had many obstacles along the way and it is his time away from Russia that is just as interesting as his time in Russia.  As would be expected, his service as chairman is the crux of the book and Sebestyen delivers the goods.   Sensitive readers should be aware that there are very disturbing events that take place and in their graphic detail here, they may prove to be too upsetting for some.  But the author reveals them so that we may learn the truth about Lenin.  In the title of the book, the author refers to him as a “Master of Terror”.  I believe the title was earned and this book is proof of it. His deeds have been overshadowed by those of his successor but Lenin was a master in his own right and I have no doubts that Stalin took many notes.  Death, deception, lies and even pilferage are part of the Soviet story, serving as pillars in the foundation upon which Lenin and his party established their system of brutality.   Their acts were so surprising in some instances, that even after having finished the book, I am still shaking my head in disbelief.  And to say that anarchy ruled, might be an understatement.

Sebestyen carefully follows Lenin’s rise and the formation of the Soviet Government.  From the start, all was not well and cracks in the facade immediately began to form.  The fragility of the coalition is on full display, allowing readers to grasp the unstable nature of Soviet politics and how quickly friends could turn into enemies.  Jealousy, egos and diverging interpretations of true Marxism severed friendships, raised suspicion and helped create an atmosphere of distrust that remained with the Soviet Union for the next seventy years.  And even today,  Russia and the independent republics, sometimes struggle to to stand completely removed from the dark legacy of the USSR.

One subject which has always been up for debate is Lenin’s untimely demise at the age of fifty-four.  His condition at the time was somewhat puzzling to doctors but all agreed that it deteriorated quickly.   Sebestyen clears up a few rumors surrounding Lenin’s death but there is a slight chance that some details regarding Lenin’s death still remain hidden. However, I do believe the author presents a solid analysis of what contributed to his death based on facts and not mere speculation.  Readers who are expecting to find any evidence of a conspiracy will disappointed.  No such theories are presented or even acknowledged, keeping the book on track all the way until the end.

The existence of Lenin’s tomb is both a testament to his influence over Russia and his inability to envision a future without himself.   He could have never imagined the heights that the Soviet Union would reach over time nor could he have pictured its downfall.   I think he may have mixed feelings to know that today in 2019, people are still interested in his life, one that he was willing to devote to the success of the Soviet empire.  In death, he became eternally etched into the Soviet experience and he remains one of history’s most polarizing figures.  This biography is nothing short of excellent.

B06WLJZNBH

Neruda: The Biography of a Poet – Mark Eisner

Neruda

On September 11, 1973,  Chilean President Salvador Allende was overthrown through a CIA backed coup, that resulted in the seizure of power by General Augusto Pinochet.   The removal of Allende satisfied the Nixon Administration which had seen the democratic election of Allende as a threat to the Western Hemisphere.  To Washington, it was inconceivable to think that the events in Cuba were spreading across Latin America.  The consensus was clear, Allende had to be removed.  McCarthyism and the red scare led to anyone having left-leaning political views to be branded as a communist determined to see the fall of Capitalism.  Among Allende’s supporters was Chile’s national poet, Pablo Neruda (1904-193).  Twelve days after Allende’s removal and death,  Neruda died after a long battle with pancreatic cancer.  He was sixty-nine years old.  Forty-five years later, his poetry is still beloved in Chile and other parts of the world.  And he is recognized as being one of the world’s greatest poets.   I had heard of Neruda before and have been fortunate enough to visit Chile.  It is a unique country and there is something special about it which is not easy to put into words.  Chile truly is a place you have to see in person, to experience Chilean culture and travel through Patagonia.  I admit that I did not know much about Neruda’s life, so when I saw this biography in my recommendation list,  I did not hesitate to buy it and start reading nearly instantly.  And what I have learned is more than I could have ever imagined.

Mark Eisner has researched Neruda’s life and has compiled a biography that is nothing short of outstanding.  Surely, Neruda took some things with him to the grave as all great figures do.  But his large volume of work, speeches and other writings have survived, and they would all help Eisner in what was a monumental task. Neruda’s story begins in 1904, an era remotely differently from the era in which we currently live.  Eisner has recreated early 1900s Chile and first tells us the story of Neruda’s parents.  His father, José del Carmen Reyes Morales, is a central character in the story and the beginning of the book focuses on his life before Neruda enters the picture.  On July 12, 1904, the story changed for good, when his wife Rosa gave birth to a happy baby boy, Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto, the future Pablo Neruda.  The young child enters a world that is marred by affairs, illegitimate children, strict social class and backbreaking work on the railroad which in some cases proved to be deadly.   Neruda would inherit some of his father’s nefarious traits and the would cause him consternation and scandal in his own life.   And through his poetry, he allowed the world to read his emotions.  But what many did not know then and may not know now, is that there was also a very dark side to the famed poet.

Eisner does not shy away from Neruda’s failings and when necessary, uses Neruda’s own words to drive home the point.  As I read the book, there were some points at which I shook my head in both shock and disgust.   In fact, there are several parts of the book that may prove to be upsetting to female readers.   Incredibly, Neruda was able to compartmentalize his life and the ease in which he discarded those around him was quite frankly, disturbing.  To the public, he was the rising poet and Eisner follows his developing career which threatened to place him in poverty.   But through a series of events, blessed with luck, Neruda persevered and went on to create poetry that has changed the lives of millions of people.  But what Eisner also shows, is the two sides of Neruda which were unable to be reconciled and a poet struggling with his own happiness while at the same time, oblivious to the errors of his ways.

Neruda was an outspoken leftist and his affinity for the Soviet Union and the communist system of government,  earned him many enemies as well.  The author explores this part of Neruda’s life and the fear of communism that spread across several continents.   His devotion to communism following his admission into the Chilean Communist Party, would prove to be a thorn in his side until his final day.   But for Neruda, staying in one place for long was never an option and this story is filled with travel around the world as Neruda works and creates in several countries.  Through Eisner’s words, we follow Pablo and his many love interests across the globe as he travels to and from Chile both as foreign agent and fugitive.  At times, it seemed as if his life was straight out of a Hollywood film.  There is no let up and Pablo has forced Eisner to move full speed ahead.  Once I started the book, it became increasingly difficult to set it aside for a later time in the day.  I was glued to the pages, curious to see where Neruda ends up next and who makes an appearance in his life and who makes their exit. To say his life was unorthodox would be an understatement.

At over six-hundred pages, the book is not exactly a short read but the pace of the story will result in readers forgetting about the length completely.   The story is engaging and Neruda was quite the character.  But he possessed a natural gift and Eisner’s inclusion of his poems, gives the book an added air of authenticity to it.   In those sections, he turns the floor over to Pablo who never failed to deliver.

Having completed the book, I have mixed feelings about Neruda.  But that is a credit to the author’s talent.   Eisner does not show the Neruda people want to see, he shows us the Neruda that we need to see in order to come to our own conclusions.   A brilliant and talented poet was also at times a cold-blooded monster.  He battled loneliness but had fans worldwide.   Some would call him a walking contradiction and others might simply accept the label of eccentric. Regardless off the adjective, Neruda did not fit perfectly into any mold and Eisner has captured his complex character which at times did not function based on reason or logic.  It is a great story of a unique person, who never faced his own demons but was able to capture the hearts and emotions of millions of people facing their demons.  In death, he became a legend of nearly God-like status and remains a cultural icon in Chile.  He is to Chile what Jorge Luis Borges is to Argentina.  Those looking for a good biography of Pablo Neruda, will be more than satisfied with this gem  by Mark Eisner.

ASIN: B072SCL5Z

 

Unbought and Unbossed: Expanded 40th Anniversary Edition – Shirley Chisholm with Scott Simpson, Donna Brazile and Shola Lynch

ChisholmMany years before Hilary Clinton decided to run for the office of President of the United States, there was another politician who had eyes on the White House. And although she did not win the Democratic nomination, she earned a significant amount of votes and in the process, showed that a women candidates were more acceptable to society than many have long believed.  Her name was Shirley Anita Chisholm (1924-2005) and through sheer determination, she launched a political campaign that challenged many accepted norms in American society and helped to break down barriers, even today.  In January, 2019, thirty-six women joined the House of Representatives following the success by Democrats in the 2018 mid-term elections.  The number is now the record for the most women in the House of Representatives and if current trends are an indication, that number will continue to grown through future elections.

If Chisholm were alive today, she would have been thrilled and satisfied with the election of Barack Obama and the current roster of Congresswomen.  Their elections to office would serve as confirmation that her life and struggle helped pave the way for women and minority candidates. This is her story in which she invites the reader into her personal life so that we can learn more about the first Black-American woman to run for president.

The first thing that I noticed about the book is the formatting.  I chose the Kindle version and the text alignment is in dire need of correction.  Other buyers have commented on the same issue.  Putting that aside, the story is intriguing from start to finish and will satisfy any reader interested in Chisholm’s life.  She was a product of Brooklyn, New York, born to immigrant parents from the Caribbean island of Barbados.  From an early age, her life was anything but ordinary and throughout the book, we see that she possessed an uncanny drive and found herself typically in the right place at the right time.  As she admits herself, politics was not her first choice as a career.  But her fate was destined and through a series of events beyond her control, she makes her way into the political field of New York City, a Democrat stronghold.

To say that the book is inspiring is an understatement. Incredibly and sadly, it is only around two hundred pages but within those pages, is a wealth of wisdom that Chisholm passes on to those who are willing to listed.  Her rise in politics to the position of congresswoman was a feat that many thought she could never pull off.  But as the book progresses, it is clear that Chisholm was never a typical candidate.  Her outspokenness, intelligence and fierce independence made her both an outcast and threat. Today, she would be labeled anti-establishment.  But is a price that she was more than willing to pay in defense of her core beliefs. Her refusal to conform and tow the line is part of what keeps her legacy alive to this day.

However, not all of her story is smiles and cheers.  She also reveals some of the darker moments in her life and how they changed her view on the world in which she was attempting to make her name known.   Her relationship with her mother, is a case study for the many challenges American-born children face with regards to foreign-born parents. And yes, there is also the issue of race, which she addresses as well.  However,  I noticed that it does not take over the book but is mentioned only when necessary.   Chisholm is speaking to everyone, about America as a nation and the many problems that existed then and still exist now, regardless of race.

To some, it may be regrettable that many of the things she discusses are still an issue. It may seem as if America has not learned much over the past fifty years. However, I do believe significant progress has been made and I feel that Chisholm would agree.  I am confident that one day in the near future, America will have a female president.   Whomever she is, she will have to confront many of the issues that faced Chisholm more than forty years ago.  But if we remember her advice and keep our sights on the long-term goals, then the first woman president can be successful and become a beloved figure with a legacy to match.

This book should belong to the library of any woman running for public office or considering a political campaign.  These words are the truth about the challenges women have faced and continue to face, as they amass a higher standing in American politics.   Chisholm’s life, here on display, was a mix of love, God, education, success and motivation.   If you have the time, sit back and listen to Shir speak in this truly good read.

ASIN: B008PINHIG

Kingfish: The Reign of Huey P. Long – Richard D. White

1If you have traveled to or live in Louisiana, I think you will agree that it is one American’s most unique states.  The City of New Orleans has a storied past on its own and each year, it attracts millions of visitors, curious to see Mardi Gras (Fat Tuesday) and the world-famous French Quarter.  Baton Rouge proudly serves as the state’s capitol and an icon on the landscape of the deep south.  However, there is also a dark history of Louisiana, one that filled with racism, corruption, crime and poverty.   Louisianans with a long memory will remember that there once lived a governor who ruled the state with an iron grip until his reign was ended by an assassin’s bullet.  He was Huey P. Long (1893-1935), the 40th Governor of Louisiana who left a complicated legacy that is nothing short of surreal.

Long’s self-proclaimed title of “Kingfish” matched his unrelenting quest for absolute power and projection of himself as the only person that mattered in any room he was in.  Richard D. White examines his reign and the effect it had on politics in Louisiana and the United States.  To say that America had not seen a candidate like him before would be an understatement.  He exploded onto the scene and in the process seized control of the highest office in the state.  Interestingly, Long never finished high school and today, that alone would earn him few votes.  But in the late 1920s and after the depression, illiteracy was a far more common problem than it is today. Long understood this and had an uncanny ability to reach millions of people that felt as if they had been forgotten by the wealthy.  Louisiana was often viewed as a backward place full of backward people that cam from the swamps.   This casual prejudice against Louisiana, was found in many places in American politics and helped provide the spark for Long’s infamous reign and determination to make Louisiana the example to be followed by the rest of America.

From the start, Long was far from what anyone would have considered a candidate for public office.  Boastful, confrontational, brutish and vulgar, Long earned the disgust of the political establishment but the hearts of poor white Americans.  His popularity soared has he talked of improving the economy, providing free textbooks, building roads and other projects to improve the state.   And while he did accomplish many of those things, his darker side tended to overshadow the good deeds and put him on a collision course with Washington, D.C. and his destiny, which he met on on September 8, 1935 when Dr. Carl Weiss fired a single and fatal shot.  The story from start to finish is captured beautifully by White and will leave readers in shock at Long’s endless antics.

White takes us back in time to an era before air conditioning and political correctness.  As I read the book, I felt as if I were sitting in the gallery watching Long launch into yet another vicious tirade against a perceived enemy.   I found myself in shock at his actions and the vindictiveness in which he carried out his agenda.  Corruption had plagued the south for years and New Orleans has long been known as a place where one can go to have a good time and find any vice known to man. The brash openness with which Long operated would result today in impeachment, indictment and undoubtedly prison.  But this was the 1930s and Louisiana was like the wild west with pistol packing politicians who sometimes resulted to fisticuffs to settle disputes.  Long himself brawled on more than one occasion after cooler heads failed to prevail.

In many ways, Long was everything that most Americans have come to despise and distrust.  He was loud, obnoxious, uncouth, racist, flamboyant, drank too much and had enemies all across America.  His larger than life persona and constant attacks on others, attracted the eyes of the FBI lead by J. Edgar Hoover (1895-1972) and the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945).  Long’s battle with Roosevelt is explored in the book and highlights how serious of a threat Long became to the establishment.  In Europe, Adolf Hitler had risen to power using a nationalist and populist platform.  Here in America, there were many that feared Long could mimic his success.  Long had no desire to be compared to Hitler but failed to recognize his own racism which is on ugly display in the book.  And as the author points out,  the true irony is that Long’s outlandish behavior did more to prevent Louisiana from becoming a true democracy than it did to push the state forward.  While he was an advocate for the advancement of disenfranchised people, he had no intention of giving those advancements to Black Americans and his actions towards them are one of the darkest stains on his legacy.   He truly did have the ability to change Louisiana in many ways, but ultimately became his own worst enemy as he became drunk with power and engulfed by paranoia.

Eighty-three years have passed since Long’s death and today is rarely mentioned in conversation.  Visitors to Baton Rouge take photos in front of the statue erected in his honor but it is anyone’s guess if they know the story of his life.  Richard White presents a clear and concise biography of the Kingfish who made himself the God of Louisiana.  This is a good look at the life and death of Huey P. Long.

ASIN: B002361KQM

Patrice Lumumba: Africa’s Lost Leader – Leo Zeilig

20190409_214533On February 13, 1961, United Nations Ambassador Adlai Stevenson (1900-1965) placed a call to President John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) and informed him that Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961), the first Prime Minister of the Independent Democratic Republic of the Congo, had been murdered a month earlier.  The moment that Kennedy took the call was captured by a photographer and the image shows him with his hand covering his face in shock.   The picture truly does speak a thousand words and Kennedy’s dismay resonated with millions of people around the world.

To a growing following, Lumumba represented hope for a new course to be charted by the continent of Africa. The Congo would lead the way and help other African nations achieve independence and change the world. As the leader of the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC), he stood at the front of the growing movement for independence which occurred on June 30, 1960.  Nearly immediately after his historic election as Prime Minister, his enemies began plotting his elimination.  Brussels became increasingly alarmed as its grip over the Congo became weaker with each day that passed.  And before long, the decision to remove Lumumba became a priority for Belgium and other nations afraid of the rising Congolese star.   In less than one year,  he was dead and all hopes for a new Congo were shattered beyond repair.  There are some people in the Congo who have never moved on from his murder.  To this day, Lumumba remains a martyr in the African struggle for liberation from imperialism.

The first question to be answered is why was the Congo such a desirable location? Leo Zeilig has the answer to that question and many others.  He explores the Congo’s past and in particular the actions of Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904) and Dunlop Rubber.  Their actions set the stage for the brutal Belgian occupation that ruled the Congo with an iron grip. Racism was a founding principle and enforced through strict segregation.  It was into this world that Lumumba was born on July 2, 1925 in Onalua, located in the territory of Katako-Kombe.  From the beginning, his life was anything but ordinary.

Zeilig did a masterful job at presenting Lumumba’s story so that we can see his development into an adolescent and then young man, forced to navigate a racist society whose goal was to reap enormous profits at the expense of Congolese men and women, often viewed by their occupiers as “savages”.   Lumumba’s path to politics took many turns along the way and his personal life nearly rivaled his political life in intrigue. Zeilig pulls no punches, revealing any facades and clarifying any myths that might exist. Several wives, multiple children and a burning passion for knowledge were just some of the many sides to Lumumba’s life.

The book picks up speed after the election and granting of independence.  Unsurprisingly, the Congo was plagued by tribal divisions which would later become problematic for any chance of unity.  Those familiar with the events of that time will know very well the names of Joseph Kasa Vubu (1915-1969) and Moise Tshombe (1919-1969).   Each would play a role in the removal of Lumumba and what is revealed will surely leave the reader in shock.  Behind the facade of a coalition government, a deadly game of chess ensued, pitting critical figures against each other as the country slipped closer and closer to all out civil war in the wake of the Belgian exodus.  Zeilig covers all angles and puts the pieces together as multiple nations soon join in the call for Lumumba’s removal.  It is hard to put into the words how much of a threat he truly was to western powers.   But Lumumba made several missteps along the way that helped open the door for the actions that resulted in his demise.

Suspense builds in the story and the effort to removal Lumumba kicks into high gear. The young leader is not unaware of opposing forces but believes he has the will of people behind him.  One of the true ironies of his tragic story is that his fate was partly a result of the simmering Cold War between Washington and Moscow.  His efforts at diplomacy are eerily similar to those of Ho Chih Minh and other revolutionary leaders who reached out to Washington and received no response.  We can only ask what if questions today and ponder how things might have turned out different had President Dwight Eisenhower (1890-1969) given Lumumba the courtesy of a meeting.  The actions of Washington pushed many nations toward the Soviet Union, which welcomed the new allies as it attempted to expand its reach beyond the Soviet Republics. In hindsight, we can see with clarity the many errors made by all involved as they sought to outsmart each other in a game of cat and mouse that could have reached catastrophic levels.

The author builds the tension just right as the pending doom in Lumumba’s life steadily approaches.  I could not help feel overcome by a feeling of dread as I read through the sections leading up to the assassination.  The writing was on the wall and I felt myself wanting to tell Lumumba to move faster and leave even quicker.  However, his fate came to pass on January 17, 1961 in the town of Elisabethville.  Unbeknownst at the time, his savage death was a premonition of the future chaos that engulfed the continent and highlighted that moment as the day when the Congo was lost.

I had always wondered what happened to his children and Zeilig followed up with them as he researched this book.   Their experience during and after his death, adds another level of tragedy to an already gripping story.   They join the long list of victims who have suffered following the murder of the person who Zeilig rightfully calls Africa’s lost leader. Lumumba’s story is told beautifully by Zeilig and stands out as a firm biography.  This is the life and death of the late Patrice Émery Lumumba.

ISBN-10: 190579102X
ISBN-13: 978-1905791026

Alexander Fu Sheng: A Biography of the Chinatown Kid – Terrence J. Brady

Fu ShengLegends never die, that is an absolute fact.  Some legends never live past fifty years of age, often leaving their mortal coil through tragedy or illness.  For Alexander Fu Sheng (1954-1983), a single car accident was the cause of his demise and in the early morning hours of July 7, 1983, he died at the young age of twenty-eight.  He left behind grieving parents, siblings and his widow Jenny Tseng, an accomplished Hong Kong singer who has also performed abroad. At the time of his death, he had risen to become one of the most popular stars to come out of the legendary Shaw Brothers Studio.  Before ceasing film production in late 1985, Shaw Brothers had released several hundred films which had been locked away until Celestial Pictures bought the rights to the films and digitally remastered the majority of the collection. As a long-term fan of the martial-arts film genre, I had amassed a large collection of films which included all of Fu Sheng’s movies.  My favorite is the film that catapulted him to international stardom, The Chinatown Kid (1977). Terrence J. Brady gave this biography the perfect finishing touch by included the name of that film in the title of this book. His exhaustive efforts have resulted in the only known biography of the late film star.

If you have no idea who Fu Sheng was, I do recommend that you watch some of his films, a full list of which can be found here.  It should be noted that the list does not contain The Mark of the Eagle which was being filmed at the time of his death.  The project was shelved permanently.  Readers familiar with Black Belt Theater will feel a sense of nostalgia as memories of Saturday afternoons filled with Shaw classics then distributed by the World Northal Corporation.  It truly is an era that we will never again see.  Today, CGI and fancy camerawork has replaced the old-school method of filming that relied heavily on coordination, training and relentless stamina.  Many Shaw Brothers stars are still alive, well into their 60s, 70s and even 80s.  The Shaw studio is long gone, but the magic they created will last a lifetime.  Fu Sheng was part of that magic and Terrence J. Brady has finally put together the true story of his short and extraordinary life.

The book is without question a biography, but the author did a great job of providing a tremendous amount of back-story for the topics at hand. In fact, throughout the book, snippets of Chinese military and literary history are included showing the link between China’s past and what the filmmakers had intended to capture on-screen.  Undoubtedly, Fu Sheng is the star of this story and Brady carefully retraces his steps from film extra to superstar.  And along the way, he was surrounded by cinema greats who became mentors, friends and mourners.  Their stories and their relationships with Fu Sheng  show the very personal side to the individuals who helped create the films that I and scores of others have come to cherish dearly.

His widow Jenny is also a central part of the story and I firmly believe Brady lays to rest any rumors that have persisted about their lives together up until the time of Fu Sheng’s death.  And following his demise, Jenny has a surprise of her own which I had never known of.  Her revelation, whether it is true or not, adds to the tragedy of his life.  But what is evidently clear, is the love they had for each other, which the late Chang Cheh (1923-2002) showcased in his most eccentric film Heaven & Hell (1980).  The film has been written off as Cheh’s most bizarre work but personally, I found it to be highly entertaining.  In the film, the couple performs a duet that complements the prior act perfectly.  But there was more to their singing partnership than many might have known or remember. Brady covers that as well here and his research provides a steady stream of incredible information about the couple during their several year courtship and subsequent marriage.  Of note, Tseng never remarried after Fu Sheng’s death.

Fans of the Shaw Brothers will absolutely love this book.  It is an insider’s look into how the studio created its hit films and a good reference guide for a quick background information on some of the biggest names to work there.  In this story, nearly all of the legends make an appearance including Ti Lung, David Chiang and the late Lau Kar Leung (1934-2013). A who’s who of stars is put on display and as I read the book, I could feel the Shaw Brothers studio come back to life again during what could only be described as a classic era in the Hong Kong film industry. In fact, this book has encouraged me to revisit the Shaw classics, some of which I haven’t watched in nearly two years  I still have my entire collection which started in 1995 when my father took me up to 42nd Street.  There, I purchased my own VHS English dubbed copy of the Five Masters of Death. The original Hong Kong title is The Five Shaolin Masters.  Fu Sheng had a starring role in the film and it was in this movie that I first became a fan.  It is just one of many great masterpieces he contributed to during his storied career.

This book truly is a blessing and I am forever grateful for Brady’s monumental effort. Fu Sheng is long gone, having died nearly thirty-six years ago, but his memory and legacy live on not only in Hong Kong but across the world.  During his time at the Shaw Brothers studio, he rightfully earned the nickname of the Chinatown Kid.

ISBN-10: 1717363679
ISBN-13: 978-1717363671

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