Michael Collins: The Lost Leader – Margery Forester

Collins

The story of Northern Ireland is long and complicated yet it cannot be told without mention of many key figures who played critical roles in the modern day status of country.   Among these figures is the former Chairman of the Provisional Government of the Irish Free State Michael Collins (1890-1922). He played a direct role in the treaty of 1921 that partitioned the country and preserved Ulster Province for British Rule.  In less than a year he was assassinated at the age of thirty-one.  He lived a short life but within that time had risen to the top rank of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (“IRB”) as the movement for independence from Britain gained momentum. In later years, tensions between Protestants and Catholics would erupt into the Troubles which claimed the lives of more than three thousand people and placed the Irish Republican Army (“IRA”) in the crosshairs of 10 Downing Street. However, the IRA can be seen as a continuation of the struggle in which Collins was involved for a free Irish Republic. This is the story of his life by author Margery Forester

The book was first published in 1971 and later updated in 1991, several years before the Good Friday Agreement in 1998.  And although peace was mostly achieved, the Crown still remains in place across Ulster Province with Derry or Londonderry as it sometimes called, being the ground zero for tensions that simmer below the surface. Republicans remain vigilant in the hopes that one day Ireland will be completely free of British rule. Nationalists remain loyal to the Union Jack flag and see British rule as essential.  If Michael Collins were alive today, he would undoubtedly push for British removal, a goal he had set for himself before his untimely death. In discussions I have had with others regarding the conflict in Northern Ireland, many people are unaware of who Collins was and why he was important.  For those and others in the same position, this is the book that tells his story in a way that all readers will appreciate.  I have written about Collins before, in my review of Tim Pat Coogan’s The Twelve Apostles: Michael Collins, the Squad and Ireland’s Fight for Freedom.  The book is outstanding in its own right but it is not a biography of Collins, simply his work during the rise of the Irish Free State and his crew of hitmen who carried out deeds in the name of the Republican cause.  But there is far more to his story, which we learn very quickly here.

When Michael Collins was born on October 16, 1890, his parents John and Mary Ann could have never imagined that their son would one day lead the resistance to British rule in Ireland. By the time Collins reached adulthood, both parents had died and did not get to see their son’s rise in power nor his tragic demise. He hailed from the town of Woodfield, Sam’s Cross but would make a name for himself in Dublin and London. But before we get to that point, we learn about Collins’ early life in Woodfield as the youngest child in a very large family. The early part of the book does read like a typical biography. Unquestionably, the story picks up pace when Collins joins the Irish Republican Brotherhood in November, 1909. From that point on, all bets are off as the IRB is determined t make its presence felt in across Ireland and in London.

Readers who are well-read in Irish history known the story regarding the 1916 uprising in Dublin and its surrounding areas. Forester does discuss it here but does not go into extensive detail. For those who are interested in the uprising itself, I do recommend Tim Pat Coogan’s 1916: The Easter Rising, which explores the revolt in extensive detail. Here, the author focuses mainly on Collins’ role but makes mention of fallen figures James Connolly (1868-1916), Patrick Henry Pearse (1879-1916) and Tom Clarke (1858-1916). The uprising did not end in the removal of the Crown but it should have been a warning to London of the mayhem that would come in later years as the “Irish question” proved to difficult to answer. The IRB was just getting started and Collins found himself in the middle of the fight for a free Ireland. But the road ahead would be difficult, far more so than even Collins could have thought. The author keeps the suspense at just the right pace as the stakes are raised and the reality of extreme violence becomes hauntingly real.

As the book progresses we learn a lot about Collins’ nature and his reception by those around him. Supportive, abrasive, off-putting and patriotic to the core, he was mixed bag of emotions and you could not always be sure what you would get. However, his commitment to Ireland never waivered. But one event changed the tide of the struggle and placed Collins on the most wanted list. On January 21, 1921, Redmond was shot and killed on his way home from work. He had been assigned to lead the Dublin Metropolitan Police and his murder earned Collins an infamous reputation. As Forester explains:

On the same day, 25 January, a putative offer was made of £10,000 for ‘the body, dead or alive, of Michael Collins

There would be no turning back and Collins rose to the occasion, ready to take on London in his capacity as an IRB member. The story picks up pace as negotiations are in progress for a treaty between Britain and the Republicans for an Irish Republic that will ward off an inevitable bloody war.

The Republican movement continued to gain momentum but sadly, some would be lost along the way. The death of Terence MacSwiney (1879-1920) is one that would repeated several times over years later and would result in Bobby Sands (1954-1981) becoming an immortal hero in Republican history. However, even with McSwiney’s death, London still seemed not to grasp the severity of the matter and the IRB’s determination. Negotiations became increasingly stressful but on December 6, 1921, a formal treaty was signed and the Irish Free State was born. But for Republicans, the war both internally and against Britain was far from over. It is this part of the book that shows the sharp differences of opinion Collins faced as he helped negotiate a treaty that gave the Republic of Ireland a sense of real power. Things became so tense that Collins even wrote directly to Winston Churchill (1874-1965) to preserve the treaty in place and avert a rebellion by the non-treaty faction of the IRB. Parts of his letters are included here to show the urgency with which Collins voiced his concerns. The later seizure of the Four Courts by anti-treaty IRB members is widely considered the first significant break from the mainline IRB position. Its aftermath and the damaged done internally to the IRB are both sad and regrettable. And even worse, it would manifest itself later in Collins’ final moments.

Arthur Griffith (1871-1922), the founder of (1871-1922) and former president of Dáil Éireann, died on August 12, 1922. As Collins walked in the procession, he had a encounter with a religious figure who gave him this warning as relayed by Forester:

Dr. Fogarty, the Bishop of Killaloe, spoke to Collins as he stood alone, gazing long at the grave of his friend. ‘Michael, you should be prepared—you may be the next.’ Collins turned. ‘I know’, he said simply. When the long, slow ceremony to Glasnevin was over, with its strain on men unused to processional marching, Michael sighed with relief. ‘I hope nobody takes it into his head to die for another twelve months’, he said.

Twelve days later, Collins would meet his fate and with his death, came a wave of grief to the Republican cause. Bu the movement continued and the memory of Collins remains firmly in place even today. He will always be one of the most iconic figures in Irish history as well as controversial. By all accounts he could be a rough person to be around but no one questioned his commitment to the cause. And provided here is a thorough examination of his life, his beliefs and how far he was willing to go to achieve a united Ireland.

Give us the future, we’ve had enough of your past. Give us back our country, to live in, to grow in, to love” – Michael Collins

ASIN : B00GJQ9WLW

Bowie: The Biography – Wendy Leigh

20201006_091423On January 11, 2016, the music legend David Bowie (1947-2016) died peacefully at his home with his family by his side following a nearly two year battle with cancer.  His passing deeply affected fans and he is fondly remembered as one of the most eccentric stars in music history.  His high profile marriage to former model Iman,  is one of the visions most recalled by fans of the late star.  But prior to finding his soulmate in Iman, David Bowie had crafted a persona over the course of several decades and to say that it was a wild ride would be an understatement. Author Wendy Leigh takes a look at his life in this biography that is sure to keep you asking for more.

Anyone who has followed Bowie’s career, knows very well that his life was anything but unorthodox. But how much do you know about his early life? Admittedly, my knowlege of his early life was quite limited. I knew he hailed from England but his family life prior to moving to the United States remained obscure. On a whim, my mother gave me this book to feed my appetite for books and warned me ahead of time that it was on the wild side. However, it is David Bowie and I think I would have been fooling myself to believe anything else. He was never interested in being ordinary and throughout his life, made an impression on everyone who came close to him. But the very personal David Bowie was complex and sometimes misunderstood by those who knew him best. Here, Leigh attempts to decode Bowie to show us what happened in his life to help create the larger than life figure we saw on-stage.

Readers should be aware that there is heavy emphasis on sex and drugs in the book.  Franky, this story is not for children.  From an early age, Bowie learns to experiment with sex and the list of partners he accumulates as the book progresses is nothing short of staggering. Some of the names are well-known while others are central to Bowie’s inner circle. Regardless of their level of fame, they are all part of the surreal world of intimacy surrounding the young David Bowie. If you have any aversion to sexual innuendo and unfiltered comments, then you might want to reconsider this story.  However, if you push forward, understand that Bowie embraced sex in many forms. His drug use is also a big part of the story and even Bowie himself knew he had a problem.  He kicked his habit later in life and even stopped drinking following his marriage to Iman. But the young Bowie was a large consumer of a very strong narcotic that has found itself the center of attention in many Hollywood parties.  And that addiction would lead to a life of sheer craziness that walked hand in hand with an surreal personality.

Incredibly, I noticed in the book that for all of David’s antics, nearly all of the people in his life remained devoted to him through thick and then.  There was Corinne “Coco” Schwab, his personal assistant of more than forty years, Ken Pitt (1922-2019) his publicist and of course, Mick Jaggger, a long-time close friend. Life with David Bowie was anything but normal and each plays their role to varying degrees.  Some of the stories are touching while others are out of control.  And the issue of infidelity rears its ugly head on both sides and David and Angie struggle to stay together.  Their escapades just might have put Caligua (31 August 12 – 24 January 41 A.D.) to shame. But such was the life of stars during that time and for David Bowie, he was being the person he wanted to be for better or worse.

Controversy always follows the most eccentric stars and for David it certainly did.  Accusations of being a Nazi sympathizer hounded him and his move to Berlin only fueled speculation.  But publicly, he never showed any signs of anti-Semitism or support for racial supremacy. In fact, he was well-known for his preference for black women.  And that would culiminate in his marriage to Iman that produced a daughter Alexandria. David could make statements to raise eyebrows but he never intended on being “normal”.  He saw life through a different set of eyes and his persona was what mattered in public.

The book is filled with wild escapades and those on the more prudish sight might recoil.  However,  he does come full circle and towards the end of the book, he has made the odyssey from a young explorer of sexuality to devoted husband and father whose passion for music never wavers.  I did notice that the section regarding his later years was shorter than the rest of the book and I would have like to have seen more material included on his later years.  The book was published in 2014, two years before his death so there is no information regarding his cancer diagnosis and the long battle that ensued. Regardless, I do believe that the book is a great introduction to the life of David Robert Jones, known to the world infinitely as David Bowie.

ISBN-10 : 9781476767079

ISBN-13 : 978-1476767079

Destined to Witness: Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany-Hans J. Massaquoi

20180602_234529January 30, 1933 – Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) becomes Chancellor of Germany and his National Socialist German Workers’ Party becomes the dominant political party in Germany.  As Hitler marched through the streets of Germany under the banner of the Third Reich, millions of Germans watched the history unfolding before them with both anticipation and apprehension.  Among them was a young Germany boy named  Hans-Jürgen Massaquoi (1926-2013), who was born to a Liberian father and German mother.  Over the next twelve years, he witnessed the transformation of German society in a bastion of racial ideology founded on Hitler’s unrelenting thirst for world conquest.  This is the story of his life growing up black in Nazi Germany.

The story begins in the wake of World War I in which the Treaty of Versailles had forced Germany into a financially grueling situation.  On a cold day in January, 1926, Bertha Baetz (1903-1986) and Al-Hajj Massaquoi welcomed the birth of their son Hans.  For the Liberian Ambassador to Germany Momolu Massaquoi (1869-1938), his grandson Hans was a welcomed addition to the family but just three years later, life as they knew changed permanently as upheaval in Liberia forced the ambassador to return home.  He was followed by his son Al-Hajj but Bertha and Hans remained in Germany, unaware that an ambitious and fanatical Austrian menace was plotting the future of an entire country.  In seven years time, the reality of Adolf Hitler became horribly real.  Those who were able to leave Germany did and in some cases, left behind nearly everything they had. But others remained such as Hans and Bertha.  What they would see as the Nazi Party began its mission of racially purifying Germany is hauntingly captured here by Hans in this book that is sure to leave every reader with even more of an understanding of how ideology can develop into atrocities.

The title of the book gives the reader a clear idea of what to expect.  But there is far more to the story than what one might assume.  Growing up in Hamburg, love for his country and heritage is instilled in him from a young age by his Tante Möller who shows him the way to become an outstanding German citizen.  As a single mother, Bertha is tasked with raising a biracial child in a country where race is becoming the deciding factor for some between life and death.  Young Hans is unaware of the concept of race as a child until he begins to hear the term “neger”.  School proves to be the battleground and those tasked with his safety and education come from different sides of the fence such as the welcome Fräulein Beyle and Herr Schneider. They stand in stark contrast to the sadistic Herr Grimmelshäuser, Herr Wriede and Herr Dutke.  Readers should be aware that these may not be the actual names of the teachers as Massaquoi points out at the beginning that some names were changed but the events are correct.

Outside of the classroom, other important figures in his life enter the story as he passes from young boy, adolescent youth and into adulthood.  In each phase, he goes through a transformation as the world changes around him but he is always aware of his status as a “nichtarien”. His mother Bertha proves to be his guardian angel and after one demoralizing day at school which results in Hans wanting to reject his own physiology, mother and son have the following exchange:

“Whether you know it or not, your hair is beautiful,” she tried to assure me. “It’s easy for you to talk,” I told her, pointing to her lustrous, wavy dark brown hair. “You’ve got straight hair like everybody else.” “I would give it to you if I could. I so much wish I could, if that’s what would make you happy,” she said, “but I can’t. So you just have to learn to like the hair you’ve got. One day, when you are older, you’ll understand and agree with me when I say that your hair is beautiful.”

As the book progresses, we witness Hans’ inner turmoil as he struggles to fit in with his classmates while coming to terms of the growing influence of Nazi ideology that had reached the classroom as well.   And the restriction placed upon “non-Aryans” all but closed off Hans and other minorities from mainstream Germany society.  In spite of the adversity,  he continues to develop physically, mentally and emotionally.  Love and friendship are two pillars in the story and come in the form of several people that we meet such as Gerda, Gretchen Jahn, the Giordano family, Onkel Karl, Tante Grete, Trudchen and Inge.  And as a bonus towards the end of the book, Massaquoi provides un update on all to the fullest extent possible. It is said that people come into our lives for a reason and I believe that is fully on display here.

The war soon becomes the central topic in the book when Hitler accomplishes the infamous Anchluss with neighboring Austria.  The Nazi empire began its steamroll across Europe but the first Allied bombing raid on Hamburg caught the attention of German citizens who had believed up until then that the Luftwaffe was invincible.  Without re-telling the story of the war, it can be said that as the war dragged on, Germany sank further into dire straits. The author reveals what he saw in Hamburg before and during the deadly bombing raid known as Operation Gomorrah in 1943 which killed over 41,000 Hamburg citizens.  After leaving Hamburg with his mother and staying with relatives in Salza, Massaquoi has a glimpse of the camp at Kohnstein known today as Concentration Camp Dora-Mittelbau. And while he never enters the camp, what he describes is more than enough to inform us of what was taking place.

Hitler’s death on April 30, 1945 sealed Germany’s fate once and for all. But surprisingly, the news was met with a range of reactions as will be seen in the book.  Post-war Germany found itself in ruins and under Allied occupation.  The author soon learns that everything has a price and provides us with interesting anecdotes regarding his interactions with both American and British Troops. Smitty and Warner are two of the prominent figures with the latter becoming a lifelong friend.  But Hans is determined to get out of Germany and reestablishes contact with his father Al-Hajj in Monrovia. It is here that his life takes a very big turn that results in him eventually making his way to the land of the free and home of the brave.

Massaquoi’s experiences in Monrovia and Lagos are certainly a mixed bag.  But his friendship with his half-brother Morris and determination to become his own man set in chain the series of events that culminated with his arrival in Chicago, Illinois in 1950.  But the story is far from over and even Uncle Sam comes calling.  His life story is simply unbelievable but also a testament to the human spirit to continue even in the most adverse conditions.  And his reunion in America with the most important people in his life bring the book to a fitting close.  The horrors of the Third Reich are well-known and there are no shortages of voices from within Nazi Germany that have told the world of what they saw.  Adolf Hitler, a man consumed by the idea of racial purity and hatred towards those of the Jewish faith, ignited the spark that set off World War II and nearly caused the completely destruction of Germany.  But he could have never guess that there was a young biracial child who would grow up one day and write of a time in world history that he was destined to witness.

ISBN-10: 0060959614
ISBN-13: 978-0060959616

 

Inconvenient Memories: A Personal Account of the Tiananmen Square Incident and China Before and After – Anna Wang Yuan

 

WangIn June, 1989, I vividly recall watching the newsroadcasts of the protests in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square. There was much I did know know then about the factors beind the protests but the image of a lone Chinsese man staring down the barrel of a tank was seared into my memory.  He became known as “Tank Man” and his act of defiance is still one of the most moving images in history. The picture truly does speak a thousand words.  The protests began on April 15, 1989 and ended on June 4, 1989.  However, in order to bring the protests to an end, army troops employed a range of tactics including the firing of live ammunition resulting an a still unclear number of deaths.  Estimates ranges from several hundred to several thousand. To those of us in the west, the protests were the result of years of oppression by the Chinese Communist Party (“CCP”) and incompetent officials who had closed China off to most of the world.  However, there was far more to the story than many realized then.   And to understand what was happening and why, we must take a look behind the scenes to see what life in China was really like in the years leading up to the summer of 1989.

At the start of the protests, author Anna Wang Yuan was an employee at Canon Beijing, a sub-division of the Canon Copier Company.  Her boss at that time, Mr. Murata, asks her to take pictures of the demonstrations. And although she is not a protestor herself, she does provide a first-hand account of what was happening on the ground and why the students had refused to leave.  The memories she has compiled, show a China struggling to remove the failures of the past and confront a changing world and younger population with no interest in the constricting ideology of the CCP.   Wang sums up the ideology in this simple statement:

“The official narrative of the Communist Party of China is that Chinese history is divided into two eras by the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949. The two periods are referred to as the new society and the old society, or heaven and hell.” 

It could be said that China continues to sturggle in maintaining the “new society”.   The protests in Hong Kong and tensions with Taiwan have shown that the will to resist Beijing’s rule remains alive and strong.

As I read through the book, I soon realized that the story is not solely about the protests. In fact, it is in large part an autobiography.   It should be noted that the book is not intnended to be a full analysis of the protests from start to finish.  Wang is telling her life story which coincides with one of the most important events in China’s long history.  Westerners might express dismay and confusion at her early family life.  And while I found the events that took place to be quite surprising and also sad,  there are lessons she learns along the way that she never forgets.  The anchor in her early life is undboubtedly her grandmother.  However, their relationship is tempermental and goes through challenges of its own before the book’s conclusion.  What I did notice is that her parents seldom make an appearance and we learn early on that they live in another city called Tianjin with her younger brother Wang Yi.  Yuan relies heavily on friends as she grows up and the most important in the book is Zhi Hua who plays a prominent role in the protests. Their lives would continue to be interconnected years after Tiananmen.

On April 15, 1989, former General Secretary of the Chinse Communist Party Hu Yaobang (1915-1989) died in Beijing.  As explained by Yuan, Yaobang was a supporter of reform and more transparency in government.  He stood in contrast to hardline conservatives within the CCP.  As news of his death spread, students began to organize the protests that would later grip the entire country.   The students eventually drafted what was called the “Seven Demands” based on Yaobang’s ideas.  This manifesto helped lay the groundwork for the reforms sought by students and other activists.   And it is at this point in the book that the story picks up in pace.

Yuan continues to work with Mr. Murata and Ms. Kawashima, a native of Japan. Yuan’s position within the company allowed her to see the complicated relationship between China and foreign countries when it came to economic matters.  In fact, she provides a good explanation of China’s financial policies and international standing at the time of the protests.  Of particular interest was the label of “most favored nation”, a status prized by the CCP but put into serious jeopardy by the events at Tiananmen.  The fallout from the protest had long reaching repercussions that went far beyond satisfying student demands.  And complicating things further, was the decision by party leaders to enforce martial law.  This is by far the darkest part of the book and we can only guess as to how many people were killed as the army cracked down on protestors.  The actions of the military are chilling and it is clear that to remain on the streets is risky and possibly deadly.   As a counter measure, the students engaged in a hunger strike and Yuan serves as the voice on the ground, explaining their condition and how the situation played out.

In the wake of the protests, she eventually leaves her employer while Mr. Murata and Ms. Kawashima return to Japan.  Yuan moves from job to job and eventually makes the  decision to move to Canada.  This is the start of the final phase of the book in which she, her husband Lin Xiao and their two children embark on a long journey to find a final place to call home outside of China.  Her journey takes her down under and finally to North America.  It is a interesting account of the many ways people employ to navigate immigration systems across the globe.  The process from one place to another often seems endless but Yuan never gives up and her will to continue puts the finishing touches on an already incredible story.  And although this is not a memoir or glamorization of the “American Dream”, it does show the ideological and pratical differences between the East and the West.

After finishing the book,  I felt as if I had a far better understanding of Tiananmen and how it looked to some people on the front lines.  Tiananmen will always be one of the most remember events during the 1980s and the tank man cemented his place in the annals of history.   Sadly, China continues to struggle with freedom of speech, expression and the demands of the students in 1989.  Time will tell in the younger generation can change the ways of the old conservative guard.  The CCP is determined to maintain its grip over China but as we have seen throughout history, the will of the people can never be ignored.  If you are looking for a good story about life in China following Mao’s death and a discussion of the Tiananmen Square protests, this is a good read.

ASIN: B07PM9LS25

Eye on the Struggle: Ethel Payne, the First Lady of the Black Press – James McGrath Morris

ethelI am constantly amazed that in spite of all of the things I learned in school and through my own studies, that there are endless stories from the Civil Rights Movement that are continuing to be told.  Amazon recommended this biography of Ethel Lois Payne (1911-1991) and as I looked at the cover, I recalled the name but the face did not ring a bell.  My curiousity continued to pull me in and I knew that I had to learn more about this intriguing woman.  Author James McGrath Morris has called her the first lady of the Black press.  It is quite the title but as I learned while reading the book, the title was not only earned but it may in fact may be an an understatement.

Payne’s story begins in Chicago, in the year 1911 when she enters the world becoming the fifth child of William and Bessie Payne.  Jim Crow and segregation were alive and well making life for Blacks unbearable at times.  And although racism does exist today, the America in which we live stands in stark contrast to the America in which Payne navigated as she made a name for herself as a respected journalist.  Chicago is a rough city but those of us familiar with it already know that.  And putting aside the modern day shootings that place, violence has been a part of Chicago’s history for well over 100 years. Morris recounts some dark moments in the city’s history which show the tense racial climate the pervaded throughout the city and America.  But Payne is unfazed and determined to blaze her own path.  After the conclusion of World War II breaks, the military comes calling and Payne finds herself as foreign correspondent in Japan. This first major assignment would kickstart the career that lasted until her final days in 1991.

Upon returning to the United States, she accepted a post with the Chicago Defender and eventually earned her White House press credentials.  The act in itself was almost unheard and Payne wasted no time in stirring the pot.  A tense question and answer session with President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) brings her more press than she could have bargained for but at the same time, earned her the wrath of supervisors.  Nonetheless it was the point of no return and Ethel Payne kept moving forward.  And what followed is a journey across several continents that included meetings with U.S. Presidents, foreign leaders and activists such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968). It was an incredible journey, beautfilly told here by Morris.

I also found that the book provided interesting tidbits about American history.   And while the author does not present the book as a reference book for American history, he does bring the events of the past back to life which highlight the progression in civil rights made by America in the past several decades.  Surely, there are dark moments in the book where progressive minds come face to face with hardened racists.  Birmingham and Little Rock are just two cities whose names will be burned in the memories of readers.  The acts that are committed are horrific and will make some readers pause.  Personally, I find it difficult to fathom why people were filled with so much hate towards each other solely based on differences in physical characteristics.  But that was how things were and sadly, the events detailed in the book did happen and many lives were lost in the struggle for equality.  Payne’s voice through the Chicago Defender, was a bastion of hope that America was listening to what its black citizens were trying to say.

Throughout the story, there are big name figures who helped changed the course of American history.  Some are former presdients John F. Kennedy (1917-1963), Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973) and Richard M. Nixon (1913-1994).  Further, the passage of the almost powerless Civil Rights Bill of 1957 is addressed as American continues to struggle with equality.   The back stories to the public facades are interesting and Payne’s obversations are spot on.  She possessed incredible acumen about the Washington and future of American’s black citizens.  In fact, as we see in the book, there were times where she was correct in her analysis without even knowing the underlying facts that proved her to be correct.

In later years after she moved away from Washington, her work was not done and Morris shows her continuing efforts at promoting civil rights not just at home but wherever possible.  And although her physical descent becomes apparent towards the later part of the book, she never slows down but instead keeps going as she always has.  Admittedly, the end of the book is without question the saddest as Morris chronicles here life that increasingly fades away from the spotlight.  And in her final moments, the reality of where she ended up is strikinigly real.  And I found myself scratching my head and the direction her life had taken as she continued to age.  However, that is only small part of a life that was nothing short of incredible.

What I did notice in the book is that Payne never married nor did she have children. She did however, care of a nephew for a short time but he was not totally reliant upon her.  The lack of a love interest becomes apparent in the story but the topic is only lightly discussed.  That might be due to Payne keeping her persona life highly guarded or in the alternative, her busy life made romance impossible.  I did feel a bit down regarding this part of the story and wished that she could have found someome to share her life with.  But she is long gone and the reasons she had for her single life have gone with her to the grave.  Notwithstanding this side-story, the book is still a very uplifting account of Payne’s accomplished life.

James McGrath Morris has certainly provided us with a fitting biography of Payne’s life that was a mixture of success, tragedy and defining moments in history.  Today her name is never mentioned and younger generations will most likely have the faintest idea about who she was and why she was important.  But I encourage anyone interested in American history and in particular the American Civil Rights Movement to read this book.  Highly recommended.

ASIN: B00KFFROFE

J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and The Secrets – Curt Gentry

20200510_190852The mere mention of his name was enough to cause fear and apprehension.  Politicans, film stars and celebrities of all sorts had learned that he knew all of their secrets.  Exactly how many secrets he knew is still a mystery as his most sensitive files were destroyed when he died.  But what is certain is that John Edgar Hoover (1895-1972) stands out as one of the most feared figures from his time as director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (“FBI”).  During his time in office, he witnessed six presidential administrations and three wars, the latter of which would continue after his death. His reign was supreme and no one deared to challenge it out of fear that they would wall fall victim to the wrath of one of America’s most powerful investigators.  The public facade carefully crafted by Hoover, served him well in masking the many dark secrets he kept closely guarded. Curt Gentry peels back the layers in this look at the life of the legendary FBI director.

The book is exhaustively researched and is quite extensive, topping out at 760 pages including the epilogue.  But contained within, is an incredible account of Hoover’s life that will leave readers spellbound.   Some may be familiar with the FBI’s actions in the past, many of which came to light after Hoover’s death.  In fact, today we are still learning of the seemingly endless number of informants and secret investigations carried out under Hoover’s directions. The Freedom of Information Act has proven to be invaluable in the research that has been conducted in order to fully understand the nefarious actions of an agency under the control of a power hungry tyrant.

The book starts off on the morning of Hoover’s death, as driver James Crawford notices that something is not quite right at the director’s home.  Although he was seventy-seven, Hoover had refused to retire but age and time had caught up with him.  The news of his death spreads quickly, sending shockwaves throughout Washington, D.C., and across the nation.  Gentry provides the dramatic opening scene to the suspensful drama that developes as the book progresses.  We are provided background information on Hoover’s early life in the nation’s capital.  But the story picks up pace as he joins the Bureau of Information which is later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation.  Although he could not have known it at the time, he had found the organization that he would call home the rest of his life.

What I found to stand out is that the book is not just a story about Hoover, but a good look at American history.  Figures of the past come into the story such as former presidents, attorney generals and intelligence figures.  Some would be allies and others would become bitter enemies such as the legendary William J. Donovan (1893-1959), the former director of the Office of Strategic Services.  The bitter feud between Donovan and Hoover is one of the most bitter fights I have ever read of.  Hoover was never short on enemies, and Donovan is only one of many who appear in the story.  The battles are fierce and filled with backstabbing and petty jealousy.  Gentry revisits many of them  showing the lengths to which Hoover went to make his authority absolute.   Also discussed is Hoover’s obsession with communists and the morality of those who did not live up to his rigid standards.

Clyde Anderson Tolson (1900-1975) is well-known as not just the former associate director of the FBI, but as Hoover’s closest friend.  Some have even proffered that Tolson and Hoover were even “closer” than many suspected.  And although homosexual rumors have persisted about the two, to date there has not been any semblance of irrefutable evidence that the two were lovers. Gentry addresses the topic but does not stray off track nor does he give into simply gossiping about the matter. It is discussed and quickly put to rest.  The author leaves it up to the readers to decided what may or may not be the full story regarding the pair’s relationship.   It is a shot in the dark, but their wills, discussed in the epilogue, may give some clues about their relationship.

As the story develops, Hoover’s importance in some of the key events in American history become apparent, some in disturbing ways.  In particular, his actions during World War II might send some readers over the edge.  I found myself staring the author’s words in disbelief and the shock that had settled in which also  took some time to wear off.  And if that were not enough, Hoover’s actions towards those who dared to challenge him, leave no doubt about his abuse of power. Further, his actions towards his own agents in particular famed outlaw pursuer Melvin Purvis (1903-1960), is just simply absurd. The stories are shocking and will undoubtedly leave readers shaking their heads.

Hoover ruled the FBI for over forty years and during that time six presidents came and went.  All had their opinions of the director and their true feelings about Hoover are also discussed revealing some very interesting facts about what really did happen behind the scenes between the FBI director and the commanders in chief.  Hoover proved to be even more devious than any of them could have ever suspected. However, his thirst for power and tendency to savor gossip about the sexual lives of those he surveilled, reveal a much darker and perverse side of Hoover that the public never saw.  But as those who worked for him would later admit, Hoover was bigoted, homophobic and a bully among many other things.  And that is just the tip of the iceberg.

Gentry pulled out all of the stops here and no stone is left unturned. The battles between Hoover and those he despised take center stage.  Some of the people on his “hit list” such as Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962) and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1925-1968) fully recognized the man they were dealing with. When Roosevelt made it clear that she did not approve of the director’s methods, she became a constant target of Hoover’s rage as detailed by the author.  These two iconic figures are a small sample of a long list of figures featured in the book who became enemies of Hoover and in the process had their lives placed under constant surveillance by the FBI in direct violation of United States law.  These methods used by the FBI is perhaps one of the darkest stains on the records of J. Edgar Hoover.

There is one part of the story that I found to be highly interesting even though it is more a sub-story than anything else.  For all of the information that the author does provide on Hoover and the FBI, what emerges is that the director does not have very much of a personal life.  What I realized and what the author makes clear, is that the FBI was his life and when looking at things in that context, his dictator like methods are eaiser to understand.  Without the FBI, there was no J. Edgar Hoover and he himself realized that and did whatever he felt necessary to retain that power.  However, like all dictators he would fall from grace and had he not died, he eventually would have been removed from his post.  And it might have happened during the administration of the last president he served, Richard M. Nixon (1913-1994).  This part of the book is when we finally see that Hoover is on borrowed time.  But the seasoned directly pulls a few tricks from up his sleeve first.  The drama that unfolds is captured with the right amount of suspense by Gentry and readers will be on edge waiting for the climax to arrive. And in a suprising revelation, Hoover’s relation to the Watergate scandal is explained putting Nixon’s actions into a whole new light.

The fallout from decades of Hoover’s rule over the FBI is stunning and for all involved, the gloves were off.  William Sullivan (1912-1977) emerges as the new arch-enemy and pulls no punches whene he goes after the FBI after resigning.  His statements and the later investigations by the Justice Department after Hoover’s death, will leave some readers speechless.  Corruption might just be an understatement.  The story is almost surreal and if you had any doubts about Hoover’s character before reading the book, then they will surely be confirmed.  The conclusion of this epic story highlights the biggest irony of Hoover’s life and readers will not fail to notice.

So far I have discussed many of the dark aspects of the book which are abundant.  If I had to choose a bright spot in the book, it would be that Hoover did in fact make the FBI the respected organization that it came to be and no one can take that away from him. However, the backstabbing, vindictiveness and illegal actions at his command, make it difficult to show him in a highly positive light.  Quite frankly, after finishing the book, I found myself repulsed at what I had learned.  If you are looking for a story of power in the wrong hands, look no further, this is it.  Highly recommended.

ASIN: B00630Z8GM
ISBN-10: 0393321282
ISBN-13: 978-0393321289

Mr. Capone: The Real – and Complete – Story of Al Capone – Robert J. Schoenberg

20200427_182446The City of Chicago has earned a reputation as being a tough metropolitan landscape in which winters are harsh, politics fierce and the streets are dangerous.   In recent years, the rise in shootings on the south side of the city have made news headlines across America. The violence has been featured in documentaries and articles that are both eye-opening and horrific.  No one yet knows if or when the violence will end but authorities in Chicago continue to grapple with gun violence that shows no signs of slowing down.  The battles are reminiscent of another era in American history where blood flowed on Chicago’s streets as gangsters gunned each other down during the 1920s and 1930s.  Of all the gangsters that called Chicago home, only one has retained a permanent place in American pop culture as the icon for organized crime.  His name was Alphonse “Al” Capone (1899-1947) and this is the story of his life by author Robert J. Schoenberg.

Although he died in 1947, Capone still remains an egnimatic figure that many have come to view as the prime example of  the dark legacy of Italian-American organized crime.  Several films have attempted to tell his story, including Brian DePalma’s 1987 box office hit The Untouchables starring Robert DeNiro as Capone.  The film is good entertainment but not completely accurate historically.  Nonetheless, it is classic DePalma and I have it today in my collection of films.  I firmly believe that there is still more to Al Capone that we may never learn but there does exist enough material in the form of public records, newspaper articles and even Capone’s own statements that help compose a picture of his life. Schoenberg took on the monumental task of researching all of those materials and more which are presented here  in a gripping account that will keep readers glued to the book from begining to end.

Similar to other larger than life figures, there is much about Capone’s life that has probably been either miscontrued or possibly even fabricated.  In pop culture, he is seen as a ruthless killer who had enemies wiped out regularly.  In reality Capone was indeed a brutal gangster when necessary, but his eagerness to kill and for gratuitous violence is perhaps quite overblown.  But make no mistake, Chicago was violent and Capone was firmly entrenched right in the middle  of the gang wars.  However, before he reached Chicago, he was another product of my own New York City where he entered the world on January 17, 1899, the fourth son of Gabriele and Theresa Capone.  The young couple could have never imagined that their fourth son would become the most notorious gangster in American history.

The early part of the book is more on the routine side, explaning Capone’s early family life.  But it soon changes when he meets Frankie Yale (1893-1928) who introduces Capone to his calling.  And after an encounter in a bar with an Irish gang member, Capone is dispatched to Chicago where Johnny Torrio (1882-1957) is eagerly waiting.  At this point in the book, the story takes on a whole new dynamic as the roaring 20s come to life. Readers are advised to buckle up because business certainly does pick up.  It is a roller coaster ride that is told in a way that makes you feel as if you are right there next to Capone.  Fans of DePalma’s film might find it difficult at first to separate fact from fiction.  However,  movie buffs will recognize the changes made by Hollywood during production to the actual story.  But I do feel that to truly enjoy this book, it is necessary to cast aside any pre-conceived notions about the story one may have.  Frankly, for some it may feel as if they are re-learning Capone’s story for the first time. But that can be a good thing as it forces us to pay closer attention to details that may have been ignored by mainstream media in recreations of the era’s critical events.

Any story about Al Capone would not be complete without a discussion of his feuds with the North Side Gang lead by Charles Dion O’Banion (1892-1924) , Joseph Aiello (1890-1930) and several others.  The events leading up to each are detailed here, allowing the reader to see how and why Capone took certain actions.  Alliances with Yale, the infamous Genna brothers and Jack “Machine Gun Jack” McGurn (1902-1936) helped Capone reign supreme over Chicago. Fueled by prohibition, rackets, prostitution and other vices,  the streets of Chicago ran red with blood.  Capone soon became public enemy number one, even attracting the attention of President Herbert Hoover (1874-1964). Today, it may be hard for some to imagine one man being so powerful but Capone had risen to the stop of the crime world and his ascent is captured justly by Schoenberg.  The recreation of key events is told with the right amount of suspense and not once did I feel that the author was either weak in his telling of the story or too reliant on shock effect.  The deaths are violent but the violence is never glorified and neither is Capone.

If there is any area where the book comes up short is with regards to Capone’s life at home which is discussed sparingly.  Schoenberg does provide glimpses of the Capone family home where the mobster lived with wife Mae Capone  (1897-1986) and their son  Albert Francis “Sonny” Capone (1918-2004).  But the bulk of the book isfocused on his public persona as the head mafia boss in Chicago.   I do warn readers that Capone comes off in his own words as the villain you hate and love at the same time. He was a charismatic figure who fully embraced the public light.  Some of his public statements and good will gestures are included showing the well constructed public facade he used to cover his underworld dealings.  As I read the book, I felt as if Capone was the preview for future mobster John Gotti (1940-2002), whose public displays bravado were straight out of the Capone playbook.

I mentioned before that Brian DePalma did take certain liberties when making his film, but some parts of the film were accurate.  Capone was indeed indicted for income tax evasion but the real method in which the case developed is less impressive but still highly important in understanding Capone’s downfall.  The composite characters created in the film will be not be found here but the inspirations for them are.  And readers who have seen the film will quickly pick up on this.   Ironically, prohibition would not as a big of a role in his downfall as one would think.  The incredible story is told here with rich details although nowhere close to being as spectactular as the silver screen.  And yes, Elliot Ness (1903-1957) is part of the story as well, just as one would expect.

As Capone serves his time, another enemy emerged, this time from within and he would not be able to fix it.  Schoenberg makes it clear that the disease which afflicted Capone later in his life most likely came from a certain source although the jury may still be out.  Putting that aside, he does explain how Capone’s condition deteroriated. and whether or not it should have reached the point that it did is left up to readers who may be highly familiar with it through medical training of their own.  The progression of the disease and Capone’s descent stand in stark contrast to the earlier parts of the book where he reigned as king of the Windy City.  Schoenberg does not drag out the downfall but tells the story at just the right pace, including only the most important details as the end nears. And when Capone made his final depature, it felt as if I had just stepped on a ride that moved at full throttle from start to finish.  And as a bonus at the end of the book, the author provides a follow-up on all of the important figures who did survive the Capone years.  Their fates are a mixed bag that will leave some readers in shock and others content.

I do not believe the world will ever see another Al Capone.  The era in which he lived is long gone.  Crime will always exist and racketeering  will be an attractive and lucrative career in crime for gangsters.  But the personality and seductiveness of a figure like Capone is from a bygone era never to return.  And as much as we can persecute him for the havoc he wreaked on the streets of Chicago, we can also study him as a master manipulator, dedicated father and a Robin Hood figure beloved by those who knew him well.  If you want to learn more about the real Al Capone, this is a great place to start. Highly recommended.

ISBN-10: 9780688128388
ISBN-13: 978-0688128388

Brotherhood Dharma, Destiny and the American Dream – Deepak Chopra and Sanjiv Chopra

Chopra1The unexpected increase in spare time that that I now have, has allowed me to catch up on books that I had planned to read over the next several weeks. Among them is this inspiring memoir by brothers Deepak and Sanjiv Chopra. I was familiar with Deepak, having seen him in interviews and on social media.  Sanjiv was a bit more obscure but also just as accomplished as we learn in the book.  But there is far more to the story than their known accomplishments. In fact, what I found is a story of the challenges a person faces when deciding to leave one home and make another in a place thousands of miles away.  It is the story of immigration and two brothers finding the Amerian Dream, a concept which many today do not always believe in or in other cases, have come to misunderstand.

The story as to be expected, begins in India where Dr. Krishan Chopra and wife Puspha, welcome their first child Deepak. Several years later he is joined by brother Sanjiv.  As each brother recalls his life as a child and experiences with his sibling, we are able to learn about India culture which includes a significant amount of diversity that still remains unknown to many.  Each discusses the traditions in their culture from the appendix “chahca” onto the name of the father’s youngest brother to fascinating aspects of Hinduism.  Those who are accustom to a monotheistic faith may possibly find Hinduism completely at odds with their belief system. However, I found many intriguing lessons to be found in the book that can be applied regardless of religious convictions.

Family plays an important role throughout the story and what remains strong are the bonds they have with their parents, uncle Rattan Chacha and their own children.  As an American, I could relate to their story but I also do see where family relations are different in the United States.  Does that mean one system is better than the other? Not all and it truly does depend on where we find ourselves.  For Deepak and Sanjiv, a new place known as America would be their calling and New Jersey became the first stop.

As they get older and advanced through medical school, the Unied States becomes the focus so that they can advance their education.  What is interesting, is that neither expected to stay their permanently but rather get the right education and return to India where they could put it to use.  And that is the true irony of the book: two doctors who had no intention on staying in America, became citizens and have led incredible lives living out the American Dream.  I think  Sanjiv said it best when he remarks ” When you start on your path there is no way of knowing where it will take you or even where it will end. It’s just the natural way to go.”  Boston eventually called both brothers where each makes a name for himself.  Sanjiv’s wife Amita also established herself in the medical field and Sanjiv never fails to praise her accomplishments.  Deepak also gives his wife Rita her rightful place in the story and each brother shows their devotions to the women they fell in love with.

The Chopra brothers find success in America, through trials and tribulations.  Similar to many new immigrants, they learn about supermarkets, credit, American holidays and even the element of crime which confronts Deepak in his own home.  Thankfully no one was injured and he survived to later co-author this book.  The issue of race does appear in the story as Indian doctors are forced to prove themselves in a new culture which knows very little about India.   Their actions, in particular those of Deepak, shed light on a dirty secret with the medical professional community but one that is not unique to it.  But while they adapt to life in America, India is never lost on them and and I felt that the decision by Sanjiv and Amita to celebrate the holidays Diwali and Holi is one of the most moving moments in the book.   And as their children grow up, along with Deepak and Rita’s, both families make it a point to never forget India and their roots.   As a black American, my roots are mostly to be found here in the United States so the concept of the “old country” does not always fit into my existence.  As a result, this part of the book caused a stir of emotions and if I did have the “old country” to return to, I would also want my own children to maintain that ancestral connection.

Anyone familiar with Deepak will be aware of his association and promotion of transcendental meditation.  He discusses how and why he came to practice it and the interest taken by Amita and finally Sanjiv.  The holisitic system of Ayuverda is also discussed by Deepak, who maintains his commitment to western medicine while at the same time embracing the thought that altnerative medicine also has a place in treatment regimens.  It is a good discussion but also one that needs several books to be covered fully.  However, Deepak presents his own compelling reasons for becoming a proponent of transcendental meditation and it has prompted me to take a deeper look at it myself.

Sanjiv is not as much of an explorer as Deepak and he gives his own reasons. He remains committed to western medicine but fully supports his brother’s exploratory nature.  Their relationship reminds me of my brother and I,  who are very different in ways but always committed to each other.  Brotherhood is a truly beautiful thing when all of the right pieces are in place.  I think in our situation, I would be Deepak and my brother certainly is more like Sanjiv.  But we have our common ground and genuine love for each other.

If you are looking for a great story about brotherhood, love and success in America, this is an excellent read that will surely improve your mood after you have finished it.  I thoroughly enjoyed the book and being able to fully understand the importance of Dharma in our lives.  Great read.

ASIN: B00GPI01D2

As Needed for Pain: A Memoir of Addiction – Dan Peres

20200319_191037The past several years have given way to a rise in the number of opioid related deaths in the United States.  Cities across America have struggled with a surge in drug overdoses and lack of proper facilities to handle the deceased.  I knew several people who battled an addiction to opioids and all but one are now deceased.  It is a soul crushing and life depleting addiction that cuts across all ethnic lines.  Many of us know someone who is currently battling an addiction or once did in the past, whether it was opioids, alcohol or some other substance. And what we all know is that addicts do not get clean until they have realized there is no where else to go but in the ground.  Dan Peres is a former Editor in Chief for Women’s Wear Daily Details and in this revealing memoir, he details his own struggle with a drug addcition that nearly took his life.

His story begins in Pikesville, Maryland in a run of the mill Jewish family.  He recounts his early life growing up in the suburbs before his life changes course and he finds himself at New York University.  It is there that the story picks up pace and Dan continues his ascent in the social scene in the city that never sleeps.  Journalism soon becomes his calling and he makes his entry into the fashion wold where he exceeds as a journalist and even gets to meet his childhood icon David Copperfield.  His job took him to Europe where he makes a home in Paris.  His recollections of his time there are some of the best parts of the story.  Upon returning to New York, he decides to pull a physical stunt that goes terribly wrong.  Two back surgeries and a bottle of Vicodin later, the addict was in the making.  And what starts out as simply medication to recover from back surgery,  soon turns into a habit which took him to hell and back.

Peres is blessed with sharp wit and his observations of the situations he found himself in and his own behaviour, add a touch of lightheartedness to a story that is quite serious.  Professionally, he was able to get by while personally, his life became a mix of drugs, escorts, lies and more drugs.  All the while, his maintained a public facade misled most until the demons caught up with him and his life began to unravel.  Two pills a day escalated into nearly a two dozen and then even more as the monster of addiction took hold of every facet of his life.  Throughout the book, Peres is frank about just how crazy things had become and his state of mind.  The story is simply mind-boggling and it truly is a miracle that he did not die.

Before meeting the woman who would become his wife, several women enter and exit the story under assumed names including one known as “Chickpea”.   The relationships or what could be better described as unspoken arrangements,  highlight the dysfunction in his mind as a result of an addiction that refused to release him from its grip.  His addiction pushed him to the brink and the episodes in Tijuana, Mexico and Skid Row in Los Angeles are the moments in the book where we realize he truly went off the deep end.  But Peres knows this and in the book, he literally takes himself to task for what could only be described as lunacy.  But such is the mind of an addict and Peres succeeds in showing us how addicts function under the influence of the drugs they consume.

After becoming a husband and expectant father, the addiction refused to let him go.  The actions of his family and in particular his Aunt Lou, are part of the what saved his life.  Their efforts are a prime example of the battles being waged across America today as families struggle to get loved ones the help they need. Peres provides a textbook example of the importance of intervention.  This story is a roller coaster ride and I am sure that readers whill find it enjoyable yet sad at the same time.  Peres is still alive to tell his tale but others were not so lucky.   But just maybe, this heartbreaking story of addiction will be enough to deter the next person from going down the same path. Good read.

ISBN-10: 0062693468
ISBN-13: 978-0062693464

Welcome to the Neighborhood: The History and Legacy of Fred Rogers and His Iconic Show – Charles River Editors

editors1

Each of us carry to this day, memories of our childhood both good and bad. It is hoped that the memorable experiences far outweigh the forgettable. When I think back to my own childhood, I am filled with many great memories. And although my family has gone through its share of loss and disappointment, I have no complaints and will remain grateful to my loving parents. Further, I do believe that there is something about being a kid in America during the 1980s that truly is hard to put into words. The shows I remember watching on television influenced millions of children like myself across America. Most of us are familiar with Jim Henson’s (1936-1990) Sesame Street and the show Reading Rainbow starring LeVar Burton. But there was another program that my brother and I could not wait to see and the anticipation that consumed us was shared by our peers. The show was Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood , the brainchild of the late Fred McNeely Rogers (1928-2003) whom the world knew simply and affectionately as Mr. Rogers. This biography of Rogers came up in my list of recommendations on Amazon and I knew instantly that I would have to read it. It is the second book I have read by Charles River Editors, who also published Operation Condor: The History of the Notorious Intelligence Operations Supported by the United States to Combat Communists across South America, a short yet thorough examination of the murderous policies of the right wing dictatorships that once plagued Latin America.

Before starting the book, I asked myself just who was Fred Rogers? As a kid, I knew nothing about the man himself and the image in my mind of him was with his trademark cardigan sweater. But as can be seen in this short but informative biography, there was far more to his life than we could have imagined as kids and his on-screen persona was not that far off from who he was in real life. The native of Latrobe, Pennsylvania could have ended up in just another blue collar job but found his calling in the world of television. The author retraces Roger’s path, paying close attention to his early show The Children’s Corner, which helped set the stage for the show that made him an icon. Rogers undoubtedly had a great supporting cast that incredibly included the late George Romero (1940-2017) and Michael Keaton.

Learning about Rogers’ personal life was equally as interesting and from what the author has written, he was a devoted family man who also showed that same love to the kids of other parents through his show which he believed truly needed to be formatted in a way that helps children be who they are. His efforts and the finished product are a testament to his enduring ingenuity. And by the time his show ended in 2001, Fred Rogers had rightfully earned a place in the homes and hearts of families in American and abroad. Less than two years after the final episode he succumbed to stomach cancer but his legacy remains firm and in 2019, Tri-Star Pictures released A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood, starring Hollywood legend Tom Hanks in the role of Fred Rogers. I have yet to see the film but I am sure that Hanks delivered the goods as he always does.

Without question, there is far more the Rogers’ story than we know but this book is a good start to understanding who the real Fred Rogers was. My only complaint is that I wish the book was longer. As I read further through it, I became even more intrigued by Rogers’ rise to stardom and the enormous amount of work that went on behind the scenes. However, the biography as it is here is written beautifully and tells Rogers’ story directly and without fanfare. Essentially, we learn who he was and why he is still important and always will be. And when I do step outside and enjoy the weather, I am reminded of Rogers’ words that it is a beautiful day in the neighborhood. Great read.

The world needs a sense of worth, and it will achieve it only by its people feeling that they are worthwhile.” – Fred Rogers (1928-2003)

ASIN: B07QLNQ6N3