Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program that Brought Nazi Scientists to America – Annie Jacobsen
On April 30, 1945, Adolf Hitler fatally shot his wife Eva Braun and then turned the gun on himself as it became evidently clear that allied forces were closing on the führerbunker. The fear of falling into Russian hands and a subsequent trial for war crimes proved to be too much for the top echelon of the Third Reich that remained in Berlin. Many top-ranking officials had previously fled and others had left Germany after realizing that all hope for a victory in the war had been lost. As allied forces move in and occupied the country, the true horrors of the Nazi reign became clear and soldiers were faced with the grim discoveries of concentration camps, emaciated and dead prisoners. The Final Solution had been revealed for the entire world to see. In the aftermath of the war, several hundred Nazi party members were executed by allied forces. Others were acquitted or had their death sentences commuted to long-term imprisonment. Another group consisting of scientists and doctors, found their way to America with the help of the United States Government in what became known as Operation Paperclip. Their story is the focus of this incredible book by author Annie Jacobsen.
Government files regarding the secret operation had been marked classified and would have remained hidden if not for the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) which gave Americans a tool to learn the truth about many of the Government’s secrets. This tool was thoroughly employed by Jacobsen in discovering the truth of this story that was first disclosed by the New York Times. Jacobsen explains herself that some of her FOIA requests are still pending and it is unknown if or when they will be answered. Nevertheless, she has written the story that will shock anyone who decides to open the pages of this book. Her focus is on selected former doctors and scientists of the Reich who had worked on the V-2 rocket program at Nordhausen and concentration camps in which medical and biological experiments had been conducted, with Auschwitz and Ravensbrück being high on the list. I warn readers that this book is not for the faint at heart . The atrocities that are revealed defy logic and reveal the very dark side of human nature. And as the book progresses, the names of the former scientist and doctors will be seared into the reader’s memory as a reminder of the many secrets the Third Reich tried to hide as the military collapsed. As horrible as the actions of the Reich were, the crux of the book is the courting and resettlement of former Nazis by the United States Government through a program that will cause consternation, shock and even anger in some readers.
The book begins as the German military collapses in defeat and allied forces are scouring Berlin and other parts of Germany on intelligence missions to discover the secrets of the Reich. Britain and Russia are also conducting their own intelligence missions and a race against time develops as the three nations each seek to obtain as much information as they can from their defeated enemy. As the author explains, the Cold War was looming in the distance and in the name of “national security”, government officials were more than willing to recruit former Nazis out of fears they would be recruited and resettled in the Soviet Union. The V-2 rocket and nerve agents Tabun and Sarin, became hot items as superpowers prepared for the next world war which they believed would include the use of biological weapons. The United States spared no expense and would not let Joseph Stalin have the upper hand. The brilliant German minds behind innovations that exceeded allied capacity were to be recruited at all costs, even at the expense of morality. Annie Jacobsen has captured the emotion and tense battles that raged as the State Department battled the military over a program that it found to be appalling. The American public slowly became aware of this nefarious program and mounting opposition forced the Government to act in what could described as a war against itself.
The main focus is rightly on the secret intelligence operation but the author also includes a stead stream of facts about other members of the Reich and actions that were being taken behind the scenes throughout Germany as the tide of the war changed and defeat became a stark reality. The entire cast of characters makes an appearance in the story. Some would escape Germany, fleeing to South America and others took their own lives rather than be tried, convicted and executed in a military trial. Before the collapse of the Reich, officials went to great lengths to hide as much information as possible from the allied forces. Today there is a strong possibility that secret tombs exist containing secrets of the Reich are still hidden across Germany. Time will tell if all of them will be discovered or if they will continue to fade from public consciousness.
The amount of research that was conducted in order to produce this book is staggering. Yet, there is still much we do not know about Operation paperclip as the Government claims files were lost or destroyed. Some are still classified with no release date on the horizon. At some point in time, someone will find out the truth about what truly did happened in the wake of World War II as America embraced German talent. By then, anyone who participated in World War II will be long gone, rendering any type of prosecution or accountability null. But the public will finally know just how complicit American officials and the White House were in recruiting war criminals for the technological advancement of the United States. Jacobsen has given us a detailed roadmap with which to start and this book will undoubtedly stand the test of times as one of the finest works on the Third Reich. My only complaint about this book is that I wished it had never ended. I found myself glued to the book from the beginning and was unable to put it down. The is the true story of Operation Paperclip, one of World War II’s darkest secrets.