Today, the People’s Republic of China continues to feel the effects of the policies of it most popular leader, the late Mao Zedong (1893-1976). Known as Chairman Mao, his successful campaign against the Nationalist led by Chiang Kai-Shek (1887-1975) set the stage for the founding of the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949. Mao ruled the nation until his death on September 9, 1976 at the age of eighty-two. During his tenure he came a controversial figure and is credited with causing millions of deaths through the failed policies of collectivization and the infamous “Great Leap Forward.” The aura of promise and hope that surrounded the commencement of his administration subsided as millions of Chinese endured long periods of poverty and famine while Mao enjoyed unlimited perks through his role as Chairman. Propaganda is a power tool used by the darkest of dictators to enforce their will on the masses of people they wish to control. An official story of triumph supported by an unwavering commitment to the revolution by ordinary men and women, helped cast an illusion of a progressive new China, modeled on its Soviet counterpart. In reality, the story is far different and in some cases, horrific as can been seen in this study of the early years of the Chinese Revolution by Dutch historian Frank Dikötter. (1961-)
Chairman Mao is widely regarded as one of the greatest leaders in world history. His image can still be found on walls throughout mainland China and his name is still mentioned in articles about the country he ruled even today. Following the communist victory over Chiang Kai-Shek’s forces and the establishment of the new republic, the left-wing government under Mao instituted radical changes to transform the nation’s economy and enforce its rigid ideology. Behind the parades and strong rhetoric of a society that helps everyone, were bare truths far uglier and more sinister than anyone could have imagined. And as we learn in this book, the revolution was nearly a complete failure in all regards.
Carefully reconstructing the past, Dikötter takes us back in time to experience life as an ordinary citizen in the new Mao controlled China. And what we see is a regime that encourages suspicion, deceit, paranoia, fear and destitution. For decades following his death, there were many aspects of Mao’s regime that had remained puzzling. His former doctor, Liu Zhisui (1920-1995) published his memoirs entitled The Private Life of Chairman Mao which gave readers an invaluable look into Mao’s personal life, the ugly truths that formed basis of Mao’s plans for the country and the treacherous atmosphere that had engulfed his cabinet. Dikötter makes reference to the late doctor recalling his words on several occasions throughout the book. Both works help to paint the most accurate picture of what Mad had in mind as he made many decisions, some of which nearly brought about the destruction of China.
As a communist nation, China had been closely aligned with the Soviet Union, then under the leadership of the infamous Joseph Stalin (1878-1953). Mao and Stalin formed a partnership based on Marxist-Leninist beliefs and shared opponents; Chiang Kai-Shek and the United States. The animosity between the parties peaked in 1949 resulting in the defeat of the Nationalists but the war was far from over. Here, we revisit the events leading up to the Korean War, the conflict that permanently changed the relationship between China, Korea, Russia and the United States. Mao’s actions and beliefs prior to and during the war are examined providing answers to questions surrounding China’s entry into the conflict.
The true tragedy in the book however, is the fate suffered by millions of Chinese under Mao’s rule. The book ends before the implementation of the Great Leap Forward but the events that transpire serve as premonitions of the disaster that had yet to come. The policy of collectivization combined with the infusion of suspicion of “right-leaning” civilians, created a system of dysfunction that eroded the trust of the people in the government and among each other. Their life savings and property gone, once well-off Chinese were reduced to peasantry, forced to work for next to nothing on a diet rationed by government bean counters. Today it is mind-boggling to think that such a system even existed. But it did and the effects of it were nothing short of devastating and left a dark stain on Mao’s legacy. The atrocious conditions in which people were forced to live is beyond comprehension and highlights the inefficiency and lack of knowledge and planning that plagued the ruling Chinese Communist Party. Today China is a world superpower but Mao’s legacy and ghost still haunt the nation as a reminder of a not too distant past in which China came to the brink of total collapse under a ruler focused more on his political enemies than the well-being of his own people.
For those who seek to learn more about Chairman Mao and the Chinese Revolution, Dikötter’s compendium is an excellent place to start.
April 5, 1975-Chiang Kai-Shek dies at the age of 87 in Taipei, Taiwan from the effects of renal failure enhanced by cardiac malfunction. His death marks the end of the life of one of the most important figures in the history of modern-day China and the 20th century. As leader of the Kuomintang Nationalist Party, he oversaw efforts to resist the Japanese occupation of China and the efforts of the Chinese Communist Party, led by a young Mao Tse-Tung, to seize control of the Chinese government. Mao finally succeeded, formally declaring the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949. In the years that followed, Chiang’s role in the history of China was often diminished and overshadowed by Mao’s ‘Great Leap Forward’, the controversial plan that brought China to the brink of disaster. In recent years, Chinese society has seen a surge in freedom movements and the efforts the youths of China to bring change to a system in place for decades. And as the country continues to see itself transformed as new ideas are presented, many may reflect back in time to a period in which a nationalist was fighting to bring democracy and avoid a Communist empire.
Emily Hahn presents to us this biography of the late leader which follows his life from the small village of Chikow up until his exile to Taiwan following the push forward into mainland China by Mao’s Chinese Communist Party. Known as the Generalissimo, the rise and fall of the KMT marked a tragic time in Chinese history in which the nation was caught in a battle between several nations to control the future of China. His decisions and actions were often questioned and even his loyalty came under scrutiny by officials in the United States government. However, this is the real Chiang Kai-Shek, the good, the bad and even the mysterious. A complex figure as all world leaders are, there is no single adjective to accurate describe the late leader. However, Hahn’s account is an informative and valuable look into his life and the many trials and tribulations that afflicted the legendary figure. The relationship between the Generalissimo and his foes and allies in the U.S. is a case study in the controversial U.S. foreign policy prior to, during and following the second World War. Hahn’s account also sheds light on the roots of the Cold War that eventually developed between the United States and Soviet Union. For a good read on Chiang Kai-Shek, the Chinese Communist Party and the alignment and eventual disconnect between America and Russia, this is a good place to start.