Tag: Congo

20200419_110627 I have been taking advantage of the free time that I now have at my disposal and was reorganizing the book shelves when I came across this book which I had purchased quite some time ago. It is the translated diary of Dr. Ernesto “Che” Guevara (1928-1967), from the failed revoultion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo im 1965.  The book was published in 2011 and through the joint efforts of the Che Guevara Studies Center and his widow Aleida March. In the years following the repatriation of Che’s remains to Cuba in 1997, there was a resurgance of interest in his work and this diary is just one of several regarding the revolutions in Cuba, the Congo and Bolivia where he met his untimely death.

Che has become a pop culture figure but the reality is that he had no use for captialism and saw American imperialism as a system that needed to be stopped.  After great succes in the Cuban revolution, he sought to spread those ideas across Latin America and any nation threatened by imperialism.  On June 30, 1960, the Congo achieved independence from Belgium and Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961) became its first prime minister. Less than a year later, he was removed from office, detained and executed in a coup that resulted in the installation of Joseph Kasa Vubu (1915-1969) and Moise Tshombe (1919-1969) to positions of power which they maintained with an iron fist.  Guevara had traveled to several African nations as an emissiary of the Cuban Government. And he soon became convinced that a revolution was needed in the Congo to remove the dictators in office and establish true independence.

It is clear early in the journal that Che’s decision to leave Cuba did not come easily and he comments on it right away in this short but revealing passage:

“I was leaving behind nearly 11 years of work alongside Fidel for the Cuban revolution, and a happy home, if that is the right word for the abode of a revolutionary dedicated to his task and a bunch of kids who scarcely knew how much I loved them. The cycle was beginning again.” 

I personally could not imagine leaving a wife and five children to take part in a revolutionary struggle thousands of miles away from home. And this part of Che’s life has alwasy left me conflicted.  While I always admired his abilty to commit to his beliefs unfailingly, I also questioned whether a father should leave his family for those same beliefs.  His widow Aleida has continued to maintain his legacy which is open for debate, depending on the participants in the discussion.  She does provide a discussion of her thoughts and feelings regarding their life together in Remembering Che: My Life with Che Guevara.  

The tone of the diary is set from the beginning through Che’s words that “this is the story of a failure“.  Upon his arrival in the Congo, it becomes clear that there is much work to do if the revolution is to succeed.  However, the Congolese and groups of Rwandans who have also joined the resistance movement, are not guerilla fighters and lack the basic tools needed for armed struggle.  The Argentine revolutionary kicks into gear and attempts to apply the lessons learned in Cuba to the Congolese struggle but learns over time that the feat is nearly impossible.  The discipline and ideological commitment found in Cuba does not exist in the same capacity in the Congo. And the effort is cursed by power hungry and extravagant characters whose only concern is self-endorsement. His anecdotes show the disorganization and monumental challenged he faced in creating a revolutionary army.

Africa is far more diverse than some people realize. Within the borders of the many countries that compose the continent, are hundreds if not thousands of various different langauges and customs.  Traditional medicine and superstition are combined in daily life and carried over into the independence movement.  The concept of dawa weighs heavily in the story and Che explains its power over the men and the challenge it presented. Throughout the diary, he explains other important aspects of the Congolese culture, in particular food staples that the men are forced to rely on.  For Che, the meager and simplistic diet is not a challenge but for the men, it proves to be beyond grueling.

As a trained physican, he notes the medical issues that arise including self-inflcited alcohol poisoning and other ailments including veneral disease.  And although he does not take part in much of the fighting himself, he does treat fighters who return from the front lines after having been wounded.  He provided descriptions of their conditions and characters in his observations about the reality of their degrading campaign.  Hope and optimism had led Che to the Congo but it is not long before see in the diary, a change in his level of confidence in the struggle. In letters between himself, other figures and Fidel Castro (1926-2016) the serious issues developing within the group become critically important and an indicator that doom awaits.

Halfway through the book, it is clear that the Congo revolution is struggling to stay alive.  Booze, women and popularity have infected the mindset of a number of fighters. Further, division between the Congolose, Rwandans and Cubans proved to be too much to overcome. Che quickly sums up the issue that had developed:

The Rwandans and the different Congolese tribes regard each other as enemies, and the borders between ethnic groups are clearly defined. This makes it very difficult to carry out political work that aims toward regional union – a phenomenon common throughout the length and breadth of the Congo.

This small passage summarizes the challenges Che faced which he document, in addition to what he believes were his own failures as a leader.  Whether he could have truly succeeded is left up to the reader to decide.  But what is clear to me is that the mission was doomed from the start and the Congo was not yet ready to be a truly independent nation. Dejected, the Cubans eventually return home to Cuba as well as Che, where he remained until 1967 when he set off for the ill-fated Bolivian campaign from which he would not return alive.

The power that comes with being a dictator has proved to be too seductive for many to resist and Africa has continued to be plauged by megalomaniacs who have failed to bring economic wealth and true democracy. Poverty, sham elections and crackdowns against resistance to government policy continues to this day. Perhaps the polticial and social climate in many parts of Africa will one day change and they do, it will have to be through diplomacy and not armed struggle.  And if we need a reminder of why violence will not succeed, Che’s words here are perfect reference guide.

ISBN-10: 0980429293
ISBN-13: 978-0980429299


On 20200202_203242June 30, 1960, the Democratic Republic of the Congo was formed after fifty-two years of Belgian colonization.  Its charismatic leader, Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961), served as an inspiration and hope for the people of Congo, who wished to govern themselves and move their country into a new direction.  Less than one year later on January 17, 1961, Lumumba was executed in Katanga as a result of a coup by military colonel Joseph Mobutu (1930-1997).  The assassination and seizure of power by Mobutu, set in motion a cycle of violence that has continued for more than five decades.  Between 1994 and 2003, the conflict known as “Africa’s first world war” ravaged the country and caused the deaths of an estimated five million people.  Rebel groups continue to operate in various regions of the country, continuing the system of violence. In 2005, Anjan Sundaram was finishing his final semester at Yale University, where he graduated with a degree in advanced mathematics. After forming a friendship with a cashier, he made the decision to abandon a career in corporate American and move to the Congo, where he would ply his trade as a foreign correspondent in one of the most tumultuous places on earth.  This book titled “Stringer’ is a memoir of his time in the Congo and the many people that became a part of his life.

As the book opens, Anjam has just had his phone stolen and is trying desperately to get it back with no luck at all.  He eventually finds his host family, who are relatives of the cashier at Yale.  His dwellings are primitive by western standards and his fan soon becomes the desired object in stifling heat.  He soon learns that as the saying goes, he is not in Kansas anymore.  Kinshasa is gritty and daily life is hard without relief.   His housemates, Nana and Jose, do their best to help him along but even they have their moments that nearly push Anjan to the brink.  He soon begins to run low on money and realizes that soon desperation will set in.  At the suggestion of a friend, he offers his services a field reporter for the Associated Press. He is quickly hired and his job as a journalist soon takes him into the belly of the beast far removed from the polished campus at Yale University.

As the story moves forward, the author provides information on the Congo’s history where needed to give the reader an idea of why certain conditions currently exist.  And though he does mention Lumumba, the book is not meant to be a thorough history of the Congo.  For additional reading, I do recommend Leo Zeilig’s “Patrice Lumumba: Africa’s Lost Leader“, which is an excellent biography of the late leader.  The focus here is about what Sundaram sees and hears as he moves throughout the Congo consider by many to be parts unknown.  The scenes he describes are surreal but a reflection of the turmoil that continues to engulf the country.  The threat of death hangs over him throughout the book in the form of rebel patrols, shady cab drivers and even a touch of malaria. As I read the story, I was sure I had the same thought as many others who have read it: he must be crazy to give up a promising career to migrate to the Congo.  The author realizes his choice would be surprising to many but it is clear that his decision was based on a real desire to truly experience a conflict that remains one of the worst in modern history.

The true gift of the book is Sundaram serving as eyes and ears on the ground to show others the truth about life in the Congo.   The descriptions he gives sound like hell on earth with the lack of sanitation, devalued currency, corruption and the near total collapse of a political system.  Mock elections and the continuing cycle of dictatorship do little to inspire the people with the belief that one day their nation will embrace true democracy.  Hanging over the book is the ghost of Mobutu, whom the author discusses at several points in the book.  His grip on the country, many years after his death, is apparent all over.  It is a nightmare that replays itself as conflict rages between government forces battling insurgent rebel patrols.  Massacres, pillage and systemic murder are the tools of the trade, highlighting the prevalence of death in the Congo.  Sundaram is the Associates Press’ eyes on the ground and soon moves over to the New York Times.  As an American of Indian descent, his presence in the Congo is both the source of curiosity and hostility.  Ethnic divisions and fears of the Central Intelligence Agency’s role in Congolese affairs, result in a cloak of suspicion traveling with him everywhere he goes.  On more than one occasion, his admission to being a “reporter” is the source of agitation to those who prefer to operate in secrecy.

Undoubtedly, there is more to the Congo story than what it presented here.  And while I would have liked the book to have gone just a little longer to see how Sundaram eventually leaves the Congo for good, the story stands on its own merits. It is a very profound account of life in the Congo, where nothing is guaranteed.  Life is expendable and democracy is reduced to a catchphrase.  The reality is painstakingly explained here in an account that will open the eyes of many who are only vaguely familiar with the country that had the potential to set a new course for the continent of Africa.  Good read.

ISBN-10: 0385537751
ISBN-13: 978-0385537759

General Reading

20190409_214533On February 13, 1961, United Nations Ambassador Adlai Stevenson (1900-1965) placed a call to President John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) and informed him that Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961), the first Prime Minister of the Independent Democratic Republic of the Congo, had been murdered a month earlier.  The moment that Kennedy took the call was captured by a photographer and the image shows him with his hand covering his face in shock.   The picture truly does speak a thousand words and Kennedy’s dismay resonated with millions of people around the world.

To a growing following, Lumumba represented hope for a new course to be charted by the continent of Africa. The Congo would lead the way and help other African nations achieve independence and change the world. As the leader of the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC), he stood at the front of the growing movement for independence which occurred on June 30, 1960.  Nearly immediately after his historic election as Prime Minister, his enemies began plotting his elimination.  Brussels became increasingly alarmed as its grip over the Congo became weaker with each day that passed.  And before long, the decision to remove Lumumba became a priority for Belgium and other nations afraid of the rising Congolese star.   In less than one year,  he was dead and all hopes for a new Congo were shattered beyond repair.  There are some people in the Congo who have never moved on from his murder.  To this day, Lumumba remains a martyr in the African struggle for liberation from imperialism.

The first question to be answered is why was the Congo such a desirable location? Leo Zeilig has the answer to that question and many others.  He explores the Congo’s past and in particular the actions of Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904) and Dunlop Rubber.  Their actions set the stage for the brutal Belgian occupation that ruled the Congo with an iron grip. Racism was a founding principle and enforced through strict segregation.  It was into this world that Lumumba was born on July 2, 1925 in Onalua, located in the territory of Katako-Kombe.  From the beginning, his life was anything but ordinary.

Zeilig did a masterful job at presenting Lumumba’s story so that we can see his development into an adolescent and then young man, forced to navigate a racist society whose goal was to reap enormous profits at the expense of Congolese men and women, often viewed by their occupiers as “savages”.   Lumumba’s path to politics took many turns along the way and his personal life nearly rivaled his political life in intrigue. Zeilig pulls no punches, revealing any facades and clarifying any myths that might exist. Several wives, multiple children and a burning passion for knowledge were just some of the many sides to Lumumba’s life.

The book picks up speed after the election and granting of independence.  Unsurprisingly, the Congo was plagued by tribal divisions which would later become problematic for any chance of unity.  Those familiar with the events of that time will know very well the names of Joseph Kasa Vubu (1915-1969) and Moise Tshombe (1919-1969).   Each would play a role in the removal of Lumumba and what is revealed will surely leave the reader in shock.  Behind the facade of a coalition government, a deadly game of chess ensued, pitting critical figures against each other as the country slipped closer and closer to all out civil war in the wake of the Belgian exodus.  Zeilig covers all angles and puts the pieces together as multiple nations soon join in the call for Lumumba’s removal.  It is hard to put into the words how much of a threat he truly was to western powers.   But Lumumba made several missteps along the way that helped open the door for the actions that resulted in his demise.

Suspense builds in the story and the effort to removal Lumumba kicks into high gear. The young leader is not unaware of opposing forces but believes he has the will of people behind him.  One of the true ironies of his tragic story is that his fate was partly a result of the simmering Cold War between Washington and Moscow.  His efforts at diplomacy are eerily similar to those of Ho Chih Minh and other revolutionary leaders who reached out to Washington and received no response.  We can only ask what if questions today and ponder how things might have turned out different had President Dwight Eisenhower (1890-1969) given Lumumba the courtesy of a meeting.  The actions of Washington pushed many nations toward the Soviet Union, which welcomed the new allies as it attempted to expand its reach beyond the Soviet Republics. In hindsight, we can see with clarity the many errors made by all involved as they sought to outsmart each other in a game of cat and mouse that could have reached catastrophic levels.

The author builds the tension just right as the pending doom in Lumumba’s life steadily approaches.  I could not help feel overcome by a feeling of dread as I read through the sections leading up to the assassination.  The writing was on the wall and I felt myself wanting to tell Lumumba to move faster and leave even quicker.  However, his fate came to pass on January 17, 1961 in the town of Elisabethville.  Unbeknownst at the time, his savage death was a premonition of the future chaos that engulfed the continent and highlighted that moment as the day when the Congo was lost.

I had always wondered what happened to his children and Zeilig followed up with them as he researched this book.   Their experience during and after his death, adds another level of tragedy to an already gripping story.   They join the long list of victims who have suffered following the murder of the person who Zeilig rightfully calls Africa’s lost leader. Lumumba’s story is told beautifully by Zeilig and stands out as a firm biography.  This is the life and death of the late Patrice Émery Lumumba.

ISBN-10: 190579102X
ISBN-13: 978-1905791026

Africa Biographies