I find that as I age, I am more focused on historical events that changed the course of America, in particular from Black Americans. It has been said that in order to know where you are going, you have to know where you come from. For millions of Black Americans, the question of identity has been a difficult one to answer. Some prefer the term African-American while others prefer Black-American. And there are some who prefer Afro-American or just simply Black. Regardless of the label, there is a shared history of pain, struggle and the never ending goal for full integration American society. Over the past fifty years, tremendous progress has been made in the United States but there is still much work to be done. But one of the greatest things about America is our ability to correct and learn from mistakes that have lingered for too long. The young generation of today lives in a world far removed from only twenty years ago. Their world is one in which technology is ingrained and life moves at an even faster pace. My father often thinks back to the period of integration and the times where it seemed as if America was going to tear itself apart. Even to him, as a kid it seemed as if the accomplishments by Black Americans over the years were just a pipe dream.
The Civil Rights Movement was a platform not just for Black-Americans but for all people that had been denied basic civil rights to which everyone is entitled, whether here in the United States or around the world. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., has always been seen as the “leader” of the American movement. The reality is that he was one of endless figures who displayed unparalleled bravery and dedication. But he is easily the most recognizable. But behind him, was his wife Coretta Scott King (1927-2006), who in later years became even more vocal in her commitment to Dr. King’s legacy and the movement they both believed in. This book is her autobiography so that the world can learn more not about Mrs. King but about Coretta.
Her story begins in 1927, in the small town of Heiberger, Alabama during the Jim-Crow Era. Readers sensitive to the subject matter might find this part of the book a little unnerving. Although there are some low points, there are equally many high points as well and the pride and dignity with which the Scott family carried itself offsets the darker memories that she recalls. From an early age, she is independent, tough and open to change. Those traits would prove to be invaluable later in life when a young bachelor named Martin Luther King, Jr., walked into her life. It is at this point in the book that the story picks up speed at an extraordinary pace.
Martin’s story is well-known and he remains one of the most iconic figures in world history so I do not think it is necessary to go into detail about his life in this post. Plus, Coretta does that for us but not in the position of a biographer, but simply as his wife and the mother of their four children. This is the behind the scenes look into their very private life which might surprise some. In contrast to the public version of Dr. King which was cool, controlled and always prophetic, the version shown by Coretta is humble, playful, a homemaker, a prankster and a father. The movement is never far away and Coretta explains early on that they both believed that the movement was a higher calling than anything else. And each would maintain that belief until the end of their lives.
As the story moves into the 1960s, the movement gains momentum and Coretta revisits all of the critical moments that changed America. The bus boycotts, Rosa Parks (1913-2005), Bull Connor (1897-1973) and Jim Sharp (1922-2007) are just some of the events and figures that she discusses. She also discusses the much darker moments that occurred such as a the murders of John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X, Robert F. Kennedy and her beloved Martin, whose death rattled the globe and changed her life permanently. Following his assassination, she became the heir apparent to the King legacy and she has never wavered in that task.
The book changes gears after Martin’s death and the focus shifts primarily back on Coretta. Her children also come into sharper focus and she discusses how each responded to their father’s death and what he meant to them. Although Martin was gone, Coretta was still in high demand and the movement never stopped. Her circle of friends and acquaintances changes slightly but the core group of support remains intact. Later in her years, she finds herself in what some would call the widow’s club but to her, it was far from that. She was a survivor of the movement who understood that death was a constant threat to anyone who dared to challenge the system.
There is one part of the book that did strike me and that was her discussion of rumors of Martin’s infidelity. Accounts of philandering, allegedly picked up through FBI wiretaps has circulated for years. It is true that tapes were mailed to their house and Coretta elaborates on what they contained. She also has choice words for J. Edgar Hoover and his bureau. King’s friend Ralph Abernathy (1926-1990) comes under fire here for his statements in his autobiography And The Walls Came Tumbling Down wherein he discusses Martin’s transgressions. Coretta remains firm in her beliefs about Martin’s actions outside the home and Abernathy never changed his position. All are now deceased, leaving us without the opportunity to clear up the issue. What I can say is that I have never seen any photo evidence of such activity and the main source for the information came from the very agency whose job it was to discredit him. I will leave the issue up to the reader to research.
Dick Gregory once said that Black History is American History. One month in February does not come close to telling the full story. But that is easily circumvented through books such as this, written by those who were present during the defining moments in the American experience. Coretta is no longer with us, but her words of wisdom and guidance remain as a light to lead us through our darkest times, some of which have yet to come. Highly recommended.
April 4, 1968-Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated as he stands on the balcony in front of room 306 at the Lorraine Hotel in Memphis, Tennessee. That same night, Senator Robert F. Kennedy (D-New York) gives what is considered by many to be the best speech of his career on the back of a pickup truck to a crowd of stunned and angry supporters. A drifter and ex-convict by the name of James Earl Ray is arrested at Heathrow Airport in London after a manhunt and extradited back to the United States. Following his indictment, he pleads guilty to the crime, but many questions about his motive and actions continue to go unanswered. The murder of Dr. King and of President Kennedy would be the subject to investigation by the House Select Committee on Assassinations. And although the investigations revealed new evidence in both murders, new suspects and evidence of a probable conspiracy in President Kennedy’s murder, the complete truth about both murders continues to elude the American public.
Decades have passed since Dr. King’s murder and the official story still stands. But this book by William F. Pepper will challenge everything you thought you knew about the murder and his alleged assassin James Earl Ray. The Freedom of Information Act completely changed the face of investigative reporting and gave citizens of all professions and walks of life a powerful tool in their efforts to learn the truth about historical events in which disturbing questions still linger. The FBI, under the tutelage and direction of J. Edgar Hoover, conducted illegal domestic wiretapping and surveillance on American citizens, political organizations and figures. The infamous COINTEL program cast a dark cloud over the agency and re-enforced the suspicions and concerns of an agency out of control.
1968 was a tumultuous year with the Vietnam war raging and American involvement increasingly escalating. Social tensions brimming under the surface resulted in race riots across the country and the murders of John F. Kennedy and Medgar Evars were still fresh in the minds of civil rights activists and citizens deeply concerned about the direction in which their country was headed. Destined to break with the Johnson administration, King’s opposition to the Vietnam war, his rhetoric and social standing sent chills down the spines of the politicians in Washington and the military industrial complex. Unwilling to tolerate civil unrest at home, the government began to increase domestic surveillance using MIGs (Military Intelligence Groups), the CIA, FBI, ONI and NSA. Their trail of King would lead them to Memphis where fate would take over resulting in the tragic events on April 4. Ray’s conviction seemed simple enough, he pleaded guilty as recommended by then attorney Percy Foreman and sits in jail to this day. However, as Pepper’s reveals, the guilty plea and evidence presented, both crumble under intense scrutiny and there were events that transpired that day unrelated to James Earl Ray. Over the years, Ray has given many accounts of his actions that day and none are in tune with those of a lone nut. Portrayed as a stone cold killer and rabid racist, he was convicted in the court of public opinion even before he set foot in a courtroom. Pepper’s investigation unearths a mountain of evidence and cast strong doubt on Ray’s guilt and forces the reader to re-examine everything he/she thought they knew about one of the most infamous murders in American history.
There’s an entire cast of characters in the book, including President Johnson, J. Edgar Hoover, H.L. Hunt and Carlos Marcello. The web of intrigue between these once powerful figures is nothing short of spell-binding and disturbing. A common question Americans ask one another is who really controls this country? I believe that investigations into the murders of President Kennedy, Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., will provide insight into the machinations of the U.S. Government and show what true power really is. Had Dr. King lived to this day, he’d be 86 years of age and we can only guess as to what he would think of the current state of our country. Next month is the national holiday for his birthday, but this year, the celebration will have a different meaning for myself and I’m sure others that have read this book. I no longer question why he was murdered but question what if he had not been.