Unbought and Unbossed: Expanded 40th Anniversary Edition – Shirley Chisholm with Scott Simpson, Donna Brazile and Shola Lynch
Many years before Hilary Clinton decided to run for the office of President of the United States, there was another politician who had eyes on the White House. And although she did not win the Democratic nomination, she earned a significant amount of votes and in the process, showed that a women candidates were more acceptable to society than many have long believed. Her name was Shirley Anita Chisholm (1924-2005) and through sheer determination, she launched a political campaign that challenged many accepted norms in American society and helped to break down barriers, even today. In January, 2019, thirty-six women joined the House of Representatives following the success by Democrats in the 2018 mid-term elections. The number is now the record for the most women in the House of Representatives and if current trends are an indication, that number will continue to grown through future elections.
If Chisholm were alive today, she would have been thrilled and satisfied with the election of Barack Obama and the current roster of Congresswomen. Their elections to office would serve as confirmation that her life and struggle helped pave the way for women and minority candidates. This is her story in which she invites the reader into her personal life so that we can learn more about the first Black-American woman to run for president.
The first thing that I noticed about the book is the formatting. I chose the Kindle version and the text alignment is in dire need of correction. Other buyers have commented on the same issue. Putting that aside, the story is intriguing from start to finish and will satisfy any reader interested in Chisholm’s life. She was a product of Brooklyn, New York, born to immigrant parents from the Caribbean island of Barbados. From an early age, her life was anything but ordinary and throughout the book, we see that she possessed an uncanny drive and found herself typically in the right place at the right time. As she admits herself, politics was not her first choice as a career. But her fate was destined and through a series of events beyond her control, she makes her way into the political field of New York City, a Democrat stronghold.
To say that the book is inspiring is an understatement. Incredibly and sadly, it is only around two hundred pages but within those pages, is a wealth of wisdom that Chisholm passes on to those who are willing to listed. Her rise in politics to the position of congresswoman was a feat that many thought she could never pull off. But as the book progresses, it is clear that Chisholm was never a typical candidate. Her outspokenness, intelligence and fierce independence made her both an outcast and threat. Today, she would be labeled anti-establishment. But is a price that she was more than willing to pay in defense of her core beliefs. Her refusal to conform and tow the line is part of what keeps her legacy alive to this day.
However, not all of her story is smiles and cheers. She also reveals some of the darker moments in her life and how they changed her view on the world in which she was attempting to make her name known. Her relationship with her mother, is a case study for the many challenges American-born children face with regards to foreign-born parents. And yes, there is also the issue of race, which she addresses as well. However, I noticed that it does not take over the book but is mentioned only when necessary. Chisholm is speaking to everyone, about America as a nation and the many problems that existed then and still exist now, regardless of race.
To some, it may be regrettable that many of the things she discusses are still an issue. It may seem as if America has not learned much over the past fifty years. However, I do believe significant progress has been made and I feel that Chisholm would agree. I am confident that one day in the near future, America will have a female president. Whomever she is, she will have to confront many of the issues that faced Chisholm more than forty years ago. But if we remember her advice and keep our sights on the long-term goals, then the first woman president can be successful and become a beloved figure with a legacy to match.
This book should belong to the library of any woman running for public office or considering a political campaign. These words are the truth about the challenges women have faced and continue to face, as they amass a higher standing in American politics. Chisholm’s life, here on display, was a mix of love, God, education, success and motivation. If you have the time, sit back and listen to Shir speak in this truly good read.
A subway ride through the underground portion of the New York City Transit system can reveal far more than most might anticipate. And if you find yourself on a train passing through lower Manhattan, you might pick up images of abandoned stations or long-lost passages through the windows of the subway car, forgotten with time as relics of the City’s storied past. The system itself is truly is a modern marvel that continues to be renovated and upgraded. But there are still many parts that remain hidden, known only to workers of the Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) and possibly others who have dwelled in prohibited areas far removed from the sight of strap-hangers. In the 1980s, the City saw a rise is the number of people living beneath the sidewalks, in crevices, tubes and tunnels buried far below the surface. The total number of underground dwellers will most-likely never be known. But their existence is a telling sign of the extremes some people go to when living on the streets. Jennifer Toth, stepped into this world, largely unknown even to those that live in New York City. Some may call her foolish and others may feel that she was courageous. I believe that she had a mix of many things as she covered the lives of those she met as she explored a completely unknown and different world that could only seem to exist in fiction.
There is a section in the book where one city worker describes the dwellers as a CHUD or Cannibalistic Underground Humanoid Dweller. The name sounds ridiculous but was probably taken from the 1984 B-grade horror film of the same name directed by Douglas Cheek and starring the late John Heard (1946-2017) and a young Daniel Stern. In the film, a court injunction has prevented the removal of radioactive material currently sitting under New York City. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is unable to transport the material out of the City. The homeless soon become exposed to the toxic sludge and are transformed into cannibalistic monsters that come above ground at night to hunt. Highly imaginative and campy, the film is a fun ride for those who are aficionados of 1980s horror films and the movie holds a place in my own collection. The majority of the film is purely imagination but the people who lived underground was quite close to reality. And in this book, Jennifer Toth shows what the movie did not explore for obvious reasons.
Some of the people she interviewed for the book gave their real names while others preferred a pseudonym. Geographically, their locations were spread out across the city with the majority of the scenes taking place below Penn and Grand Central Stations. Seville, Black, Brenda, Blade and Bernard are just some of the many dwellers that Toth encountered in the course of her research. Other figures who cast a darker tone are mentioned briefly in passing sections. Shockingly, some of them came from good homes, graduated from college and possessed advanced degrees. Abuse, drugs and dysfunction at home proved to be the common link between many of them and fueled their decision to go underground where it was “safe” from above. In the interviews they are highly articulate, aware of their surroundings and should be productive members of society. And even more surprising, some of them preferred to live underground. But there also exist, another group of people, who ended up underground as an escape from lives that could be classified as hell on earth.
Each person has their own reason for moving underground but what emerges in the book, is an underground network of tunnels, caves and passageways akin to a city of its own where surface dwellers are not welcome and those who come down below are seen with the highest level of suspicion. It is a world many of us could never imagine living in, let alone raising a child in as can been seen in the book. The descriptions of the tunnels are graphic and those with a weak stomach will need a strong resolve to make it through some chapters. Life underground is gritty, dirty and beyond dangerous. It is not for the faint at heart. But miraculously, Toth was never seriously injured while conducting the interviews. She may have had someone watching over her combined with an unusual amount of good luck or perhaps she did on the one thing that many above ground could never do for the people below and that is to simply listen. Whether some of them embellished their tales is a strong possibility. Drug addiction and mental health issues are largely prevalent in many of them and could possibly have played a role in the accounts that they give. But what is accurate is the former existence of a large number of underground dwellers beneath the City.
The book was completed in 1993 and to my knowledge, there is no follow-up to the story nor would I expect there to be. Her experience with Blade as detailed towards the end of the book is beyond enough to make anyone think twice about returning. Some of the characters may still be alive today while others may have left the tunnels or died along the way. In recent years, I cannot recall any discussion of the mole people and most of them have probably been relocated by City officials as the tunnels were cleaned up and the underground squatters permanently removed. Some of them may still live underground, firmly hidden from prying eyes, but the number is probably far lower than the 1990s when the epidemic reached its height.
The book is revealing and sure to leave many readers in a state of shock. New Yorkers unaware of the mole people of the 1980s and 1990s will find this book to be eye-opening about the city they call home. The book shows the ability of humans to adapt to nearly anything and the lengths people will go to in their efforts to survive. This is a haunting look at life in a city beneath a city.