Tag: Adolf Hitler

 

DietrichThe Second World War remains one of the most studied and brutal conflicts in the history of man.   The rise and fall of Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich have become a case studies for history buffs and students learning about a war that nearly resulted in the complete destruction of Germany and the continent of Europe. It is true that Hitler had many supporters but he also had large numbers of detractors, some of whom were serving in his own army.  The attack of personal liberties and treasured institutions, caused shock and consternation across Germany.  The persecution of the Catholic church by the National Socialists is among Hitler’s darkest deeds.  Throughout the war, Hitler would ramp up his attacks on the church and his bloodthirsty purge of religion knew no bounds.  The horror with which the clergy watched the rise of the Third Reich spurred many to action and they were determined to rid Germany and the world of the man they saw as the very incarnation of evil.  Among them was Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945), the man who became a pastor, martyr, prophet and spy.

Before reading this book, I had never head of Bonhoeffer.  I did know of Hitler’s persecution of the church and his never ending attacks on anyone deemed to be against the Reich.  This excellent biography by author Eric Metaxas came as a recommendation on Amazon and encouraged me to revisit Nazi Germany.  From start to finish, the book is seductively intriguing and it caused me to wonder why Bonhoeffer’s story is not more widely known.  In history classes, his name was never discussed and in none of the specials I watched regarding the war, was he ever mentioned.  But having finished the book, I can say with certainty that his story and that of the resistance by the Catholics opposed to Hitler, is a side of the war that needs much further exploration and exposure.

History continues to examine how and why Adolf Hitler was able to seize control of Germany and plunge the world into yet another major conflict.  By nearly all accounts, he was initially viewed as a mere distraction in politics and his group of brown shirts were seen as thugs determined to interfere with important elections.   The Beer Hall Putsch nearly cost Hitler his life but even that was not enough to deter the Austrian menace.  Hitler had a sharp eye with regards to social changes and human nature.   As Paul Von Hindenburg (1847-1934) saw the end of his life near,  he made one decision that change the course of world history and for the German people, cast upon them a stain that Germany may never be able to remove.   Some Germans saw the writing on the wall and left the country before Hitler unleashed his wave of tyranny and insanity.  Others remained and for those of Jewish heritage, the genocidal Final Solution would result in a horror that one will ever be able to forget.

Hitler’s promotion to Chancellor of Germany was the moment the Austrian had been waiting for and the Nazis wasted no time in enforcing new laws based on racial ideology.  The Nuremberg Laws and others that not only stripped Jews of their rights but in the process made them second class citizenst shocked many Germans.  The persecution of the Jews eventually reached the church, which would have to make a decision regarding the growing menace from Berlin.  Bonhoeffer had come to embrace the teachings of the church and his beliefs would lead him on a course that no one thought possible for a man of the cloth.  But his story is among of the most fascinating that I have ever read.  Metaxas presents his life beautifully here and includes many of Bonhoeffer’s writings to show the mindset and the very personal side of a man who followed the path of God while at the same time joined several plots to assassinate Hitler.

The thought of a pastor assisting in an assassination plot is simply astounding.  But Bonhoeffer was not living in ordinary times and Germany was under siege and caught in the grip of a madman whose only goal was world domination.   Metaxas does an incredible job of not only capturing Bonhoeffer’s life but also revisits key moments in the advancement of Hitler’s agenda.   The two sides are on a collision course and the plotters knew they would have to act at some point in time.  Bonhoeffer is firmly entrenched in it all while at the same time, holding on to his convictions and proving to many why he was such a beloved figure by those who knew him well.

As the author told Bonhoeffer’s story, I found myself in amazement at the things that I learned.   Bonhoeffer was multi-lingual, an excellent writer, world traveler and a strong advocate for civil rights as a result of his two visits to America.  His experiences in Harlem were surely eye opening for a New York such as myself.  But what really struck me the most was his calm ability to accept the fate that he knew awaited him.   His prophetic nature is on display early in his writings and his final act is a testament to his commitment to the word of the lord.  His words are touching and uplifting.  And his observations about the world he embraced are still relevant today.   Long before Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Bonhoeffer saw the direction that would be needed for true change to occur in America and for Black Americans to have equal rights under the law.  How ironic it is that the horrors he saw in America were slowly being replicated and in some cases surpassed by the devious and sadistic officials of Hitler’s inner circle.

To say the book is well-written would be an understatement. If you are curious about the Third Reich and the impact it had on German religion, then this book is a good place to start. Further, the book is not only Bonhoeffer’s story but that of many others including Hitler himself.  World War II buffs will absolutely love this book.  Bonhoeffer’s story is inspiring yet tragic but one that is integral to the history of Nazi Germany.  And in this soul-reaching biography, Eric Metaxas has given Bonhoeffer his rightful place in the annals of Germany history.

ASIN: B003GY0K48

Biographies

20190202_003914On September 1, 1939, the Second World War began as the German army invaded Poland as part of Adolf Hitler’s quest for world domination.  Britain had warned Germany that any military action against Poland would result in England coming to the aid of its ally.  Interestingly, Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) did not want to go to war with England, preferring to accomplish the annexation of Poland through diplomatic methods after having successfully partitioned Czechoslovakia in what is infamously referred to as the “appeasement at Munich”.  But if Hitler did not want to wage war against Britain, knowing their intention to save Poland, then why did he give approval to the invasion that plunged the world into a major conflict?  The answer to that question lies in the story of his Foreign Minister and Nuremberg defendant, Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (1893-1946).

In the annals of the Third Reich, perhaps no other figure is as glanced over as Joachim von Ribbentrop.  Standing next to nefarious characters such as Hermann Goering (1893-1946), Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945) and Heinrich Himmler  (1900-1945), he is often an afterthought.   Semi-illiterate but able to speak fluent English, he was one of the few officials in the Third Reich with extensive exposure to the culture of the west. And the time he spent in London early in his life, made him the right choice by Hitler for the position of Ambassador to Great Britain.  By all accounts, no one found him to be enjoyable company but incredibly, he maintained a position close to Hitler’s ear with the Führer listening intently and in some cases implementing Ribbentrop’s suggestions.  Their unusual relationship would have dire consequences in 1939 at Hitler set his sights on Poland. It is here in this phenomenal biography that we learn another part of the story behind the Poland invasion and Ribbentrop’s critical role in the events.

At first glance, it is easy to write of Ribbentrop as “non-essential” to the story of the Third Reich.  And although he is mentioned in many books about the Nazi regime, his role is typically minor in the grand scheme of events.  But make no mistake, his advice and misconceptions about foreign nations, played pivotal roles in the rise and fall of the Third SS Reich. Bloch has capture Ribbentrop’s life beautifully in this biography that tells the story of the former Foreign Minister for all to see.  In comparison to the other figures of the Nazi regime, his personal life could be considered average.  But his entry in the Nazi party and actions thereafter, helped changed the course of history.  As I was reading the book, I could not help feeling mystified as to how a figure such as Ribbentrop maintained the confidence of Hitler as each blunder piled up.   Admittedly, Hitler did not consult him on every foreign policy matter, apparently realizing his many shortcomings.  But he did trust Ribbentrop enough on some of the most important decisions to be made, many of which changed the course of world history and produced a mark on the history of Germany which can never be erased.

Notwithstanding his restricted voice in Hitler’s government, he was an important figure in Hitler’s vision of a Anglo-German unification.  In fact, Ribbentrop’s actions towards and with the British government are the crux of the book.   Naturally, his positions as Ambassador and later Foreign Minister, resulted in his constant communication with the Ambassadors of England, Italy and Japan.  However, his close position to the Führer did not earn him the envoy of others but rather their wrath.  Hitler was known to pit subordinates against each other, using the divide and conquer technique.  Their fights and attempts to sabotage each other take center stage in the book as they compete for Hitler’s approval, the elimination of enemies and advancement in rank.   The story reveals a terrible cast of characters drunk on power and filled with venom for competitors and the Jews of Europe.  Standing center among these characters was the sad Ribbentrop, the man often the butt of jokes and contempt, who was rarely seriously.  Having finished the book, I am dumbfounded as to how Hitler’s administration functioned at all.  The decisions they reached and methods used were simply surreal and Ribbentrop plays a direct part in many of them.

On October 14, 1946, Ribbentrop was the first to be executed after Goering committed suicide in his cell the night before.  He left behind a widow and four children, all of whom are still alive today.  Decades have passed since their father’s death and in the passage of time, their lives will also reach a conclusion.  But they remain witnesses to a time in history in which the world was on the brink of complete anarchy as Adolf Hitler set out to dominate the planet.  Next to him was his fanatically dedicated Foreign Minister.  This is the definitive biography of the life and death of Joachim von Ribbentrop.

ISBN-10: 0517593106
ISBN-13: 978-0517593103

Biographies World War II

what-we-knewIn April, 1945, allied troops moved through Germany as the walls surrounding Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) began to collapse. His suicide on April 30, allowed him to escape justice but helped to cement his place in history as one of mankind’s most tyrannical leaders.  Concentration camps across Germany and Poland were liberated, releasing thousands of Jews who had been imprisoned as the Third Reich began its Final Solution, the plan produced by the minds of homicidal maniacs such as Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) and Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942).  The emaciated figures that were once lively young men and women provided allied troops with a shocking sight that no one could ever forget. Even today, images and videos of bodies stacked upon bodies produces a feelings of disgust and anger toward those responsible for the crimes and others who feigned ignorance.

I have visited Germany twice and enjoyed my experiences there. Today it is hard to imagine that less than eighty years ago, one man plunged the world into war and oversaw the deaths of millions of Jews.  When Adolf Hitler seized control of Germany giving the N.S.D.A.P. the majority presence,  German society was transformed and turned upside down.   Many Jews fled Germany before the Third Reich began its campaign of genocide and some of them never returned. The actions of an unhinged Hitler, nearly brought Germany to the brink of collapse.  Widespread famine and lack of basic necessities made life in post-war Germany close to unbearable.  Some undoubtedly believed that Germans only had their selves to blame for the war and should suffer for what they did to other nations. The United States and Soviet Union stepped in to divide Berlin and the wall constructed remained in placed until 1989.  It was the end of two different German nations contained within one mass of land. The division is similar to the subject of this book entitled ‘What We Knew”.

Historians have always debated what ordinary Germans knew and did not know.  Surely, there were many Germans who sought to save their own lives and desperately avoided being linked in any way to Hitler’s failed regime.  Many claimed that they had no idea Jews were being systematically murdered in concentration camps.  For the Jews, it was hard to believe they could proclaim such ignorance when Antisemitism was a pillar of the Nazi ideology.  Americans and other foreign nations always pondered the same question. This book by Eric A. Johnson and Karl-Heinz Reuband has attempted to take on those questions in the search for the truth about how much the German people knew about the fate that awaited millions of Jews across Europe. Divided into two parts, the first half of the book contains interviews of German Jews who either fled Germany or survived concentration camps.   The second half contains interviews of non-Jewish Germans who witnesses the events that transpired.  What’s revealed in these pages is both eye-opening and enlightening.

As to be expected each side has their own convictions about what each side knew.  Whether they were telling the complete truth is something we will never be able to answer.  But what is clear from the book is that the place in Germany in which one lived, played a role in what they knew or did not know.  The authors do not attempt to make any decisions about who is to be believed or not believed.  They simply present the statements for the reader to decide.  From a personal standpoint, I did find that denial is apparent in many of the interviews of non-Jewish Germans while the Jewish Germans unanimously agree that their neighbors definitely knew of the systematic extermination of the Jews and used it as an excuse to plunder and seize what was left over in houses and apartments.  Several of the Jewish survivors vowed never to return to Germany and believe that they never did.  But they were among the fortunate who were able to survive the Third Reich and tell their stories here.

The debate about the knowledge of the Reich’s atrocities by German citizens will continue for an eternity.  But what is clear is that there was much many had knowledge of but preferred not to know.  The stories of what really happened cannot be lost to history and to prevent another Holocaust requires that demons from the past are confronted.  These are the stories of Germany’s survivors who are here to tell you what they knew.

“To sin in silence while others doth protest makes cowards out of men.” – Ella Wheeler Wilcox

ISBN-13: 978-0465085712
ISBN-10: 0465085717

World War II