Free Thinking Bibliophile Posts

20180602_225945History always has many witnesses.   Audio, video, word of mouth and the written word serve as the recorders for the events that are occurring.  When Adolf Hitler began his rise to power, all of Europe and the rest of the world took notice.  Many of those nations never imagined that the menace from Austria would become Chancellor of Germany and unleash a wave of terror never before seen across the continent.  His climactic rise to power and fall is a case study that has been the subject of debates and discussions since the end of the Second World War in 1945.  Even today we continue to learn new facts about Hitler and secrets of the Third Reich.  William L. Shirer (1904-1993) lived in Germany as correspondent for CBS news and served as a first-hand witnesses of the rise of national socialism carried under the banner of Hitler’s N.S.D.A.P.    As the war in Europe unfolded, he returned to the United States and his memories of his time in Germany served as the basis for the Berlin Diary. During his residence in Germany, he had been censured by Nazi regime from speaking on air. Shirer took advantage of the time to start a book on the Reich, a book that became a masterpiece and the definitive account of the rise and fall of the Third Reich.

Hitler’s seizure of power by means of annexation of the smaller countries surrounding Germany showed to the world the true nature of his regime and the pending doom that awaited Europe.  By the time the war was over, nearly fifty million people had died.   Germany was split in half and became the center of aggression between the United States and Soviet Union.  The story of the Nazi empire has caused many to ask how did Hitler assume power and why did the German people give it to him?  And if the German military was as supreme as their leaders thought, why did Germany suffer defeat in a second world conflict?  The answers to these questions are contained within the pages of this book and Shirer provides a staggering amount of information about what really transpired behind the scenes hidden from the German public.  The book is divided into several smaller parts, each focusing on a different period in the war.   But the author covers the Reich from start to finish giving the reader a complete account of one of history’s darkest moments.

While the book is not a “official” textbook to be used by educators, I do think it should supplement any course material on the holocaust and the war. Shirer’s work is of critical importance and will remain with us for generations.  It is the go to source for the story of the Nazi reign.  All of the characters make an appearance in the story and some parts of the narrative are a bit comical as the Nazis simply make up the rules as they go along. But what is even more intriguing is the often opposing views taken by Hitler and his Generals. Many knew that a madman had seized power and was leading Germany down a path of destruction yet no one seemed to be able to stop the Austrian menace. Shirer once said that “the cardinal error of the Germans who opposed Nazism was their failure to unite against it”.  The Führer, seemingly one step ahead of those under him, often played subordinates against each other creating a climate of suspicion that undermined any efforts to remove him from power. And at his call, were a number of loyal Nazi party members all too happy to do the regime’s dirty work.

I cannot overstate the importance of this book.  To understand the machinations at play that pushed the German war machine forward, Shirer’s words are an invaluable source.  The book is by no means short, running well over one thousands pages.  But contained within those pages is the story that can never be erased.   The world has changed drastically since 1945.  Hitler’s ghost is still among as those loyal to the Nazi party, pledge their undying allegiance to an ideology that went down at the hands of Allie forces more than seventy years ago. His supporting cast of characters retain their places in infamy as part of a failed regime that based its foundation upon the idea of “Aryan supremacy”.   But unbeknownst to the Germany people, there was much that was hidden from them by Hitler, the man some came to love but many began to fear.  Had they known the truth about the Nazis, perhaps he would have been removed from power before the war reached its deadly heights.  We can only ask what if at this point about how things might have been.  But as we look back and study the war, Shirer is there with us reminding us along the way of everything that happened during the rise and fall of the Third SS Reich.

ISBN-10: 1451651686
ISBN-13: 978-1451651683

World War II

index1The stories of those who survived the Holocaust have been read by millions and their words a reminder of one of history’s darkest times. Their will to live and courage in reliving their experiences have given the world invaluable treasures in books that have stood and will continue to stand the test of time.  Among them is the story Annelies Marine “Anne” Frank (1929-1945), whose diary kept while hiding from the Third Reich, became one of the most popular books in the world.  In June, 2013 while visiting The Netherlands, I paid a visit to the Anne Frank Museum. As I entered the museum and made my way up to the attic, I was overcome by chills at just how small it really is.  Pictures and words do not suffice, it is something to be seen in person.  And it continues to boggle my mind that several people lived in such a compact space.  But their will to survive kept them focused on their surroundings and remaining in the attack for as long as possible.  Their hiding place was eventually discovered and for many years it was believed that the family was betrayed. However, historians have never found conclusive proof that the family’s location was given to the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) in the form of an anonymous phone call as is widely believed.  The truth may remain lost to history.   Frank was sent to the Bergen-Belsen camp where she died of Typhus in February, 1945, several days after her sister Margot and would have been simply another victim of the Final Solution if not for her father Otto, who survived the war and returned to Amsterdam where he found her diary.  Believing his daughter’s words to be important to future generations, he found a publisher willing to put the words in print.  And the result is a literary masterpiece that is read each year by growing numbers of young students across the world.

The diary is fascinating and shows the musings of a typical teenage girl living in atypical times.  Her account of daily life in the annex and thoughts about her family, war and her feelings towards the other occupants in the annex are interesting and at times humorous.  Her sharp wit and analytical observations of those around her, show that she is wise beyond her years. And her ability to maintain a sense of humor even as they are hiding in the attic, is a testament to her character and that of those around her. We the readers know that eventually she falls victim to the Nazis and is sent to the camp where she will die.  But as the book moves forward, it is impossible not to become drawn to her through a vivacious personality and blossoming mind.  We are even introduced to her paramour, Peter whose family is in hiding with the Franks.  Her story really is the diary of a young girl.

When I finished the book, I found it incredibly difficult to come to terms that such a young woman was sent to her death simply because of her religious faith.   It forced me to ask myself why humans do the things they do to each other.  We have an uncanny ability to cause the destruction of ourselves and those around us.  Anne Frank, never finished high school, went to a university, met the love of her life and started a family.  During the Second World War, she and the occupants of the hidden attic fell victim to Nazi terror formulated by Nazi ideology.  But in death, Frank has become a martyr of the Holocaust and one its brightest voices from beyond this world.  Today, more than seventy-three years after her death, this book remains on the shelves of bibliophiles, libraries and teachers throughout the world as new generations of students learn about the Third Reich and the quest of Adolf Hitler to accomplish world domination.

Anne Frank’s story is one that will remain with you long after you have finished the book.  Although it is recommended reading to young adults, I find that even older adults can find meaning in this captivating journal recorded by a young woman whose life was changed permanently in the country she called home as the Austrian menace pushed Germany in a world conflict. And until the end of time, people will continue to read and cherish this diary of a young girl.

ISBN-10: 9780553296983
ISBN-13: 978-0553296983

Biographies

indexOn August 22, 1989, Huey P. Newton was shot killed on a street corner in Oakland, California.  He was 47 years old.  The charismatic Newton was the co-founder of the Black Panther Party with Bobby-Seale and became an icon for revolution.  The image of the Newton sitting with a rifle in one hand and a spear in other while wearing the Panthers’ trademark leather jacket is one of the most recognized of the era. It is the cover of this book but only tells part of the story of the late icon’s life. David Hilliard served as chief of staff for the party and became well acquainted with Newton.  This is a collection of his memories from his time with Huey, the Panthers and the movement watched by entire world.  Newton himself wrote several book, as the best-selling Revolutionary Suicide, could be considered a semi-autobiography.  However its main strength is also its main weakness for that Newton is the only one telling the story.  Hilliard’s account proves itself valuable as another look at Newton and his significance to the party and the movement.

Complex is an adjective often used to describe some of history’s greatest figures.  For Newton, this adjective is highly accurate.   Here we are presented with the good, the bad and at times, the ugly.  His studies of Marx, Engels, Mao and Fanon served as the basis for his belief for armed struggle and the willingness to use violence whenever necessary.  For most of his life, he was a functional illiterate as he pointed out himself on multiple occasions.  Fighting resulted in expulsion from several schools in the Oakland area. And as an adult, he went on trial several times for the charge of murder only to be acquitted in the end.  His extreme rhetoric and descent into drug use cast him down a hill from which he never recovered.  However, as Hilliard shows us, there was a good side to Newton and his commitment to the cause sprang from emotion and strong convictions.   Newton himself once said that the first thing a revolutionary must understand is that he is doomed from the start. It is a tragic fate that those committed to social upheaval must be willing to accept as they put their lives on the line in the service to humanity.

The book features two guest writers, Gwen Fontaine and Fredrika Newton. Fontaine was Newton’s first wife and was married to him from 1974-1983.   As a mother of two children, she invites Newton into her life and the lives of her children.   Her memories of life with Newton highlight his erratic behavior at the time and the demons he began to face as his drug use escalated.  And as he continued to spiral downward, a strain was placed upon the relationship fracturing it past the point of no return.  In 1984, Newton married his second wife Fredrika who remained with him up until the time of his death.  Her words serve as the last testament to Huey’s life and legacy.

Hilliard is currently a visiting professor for the University of New Mexico where he teaches courses on the history of the Black Panther Party.   He and Fredrika founded the Huey P. Newton Foundation in 1993 with its base of operations in Vallejo, California.  The Panthers are a shadow of what they once were during the turbulent 1960s.  The United States has made much social progress over the past 50 years but the stains from the policies of Jim Crow and legally sanctioned segregation and discrimination haunt the nation as it confronts its past.   But if we are to understand our past and how we can shape our future, we will do a service to ourselves to look to books such as this for a look into a time in American history where the nation almost became completely unhinged as a new brand of revolutionaries made their voices heard.

ISBN-10: 1560258977
ISBN-13: 978-1560258971

Civil Rights Movement

chariman-maoOn September 9, 1976, Mao Zedong (1893-1976) died in Beijing, China at the age of eighty-two. The late Chairman served as ruler of the People’s Republic of China following the defeat of Chiang Kai-Shek’s Kuomintang (KMT) party in 1949. The People’s Liberation Army, under the guidance of Mao, pushed the KMT to complete physical exhaustion before claiming victory. To some, Mao represented the face of a new frontier for the people of China. To others, his regime was viewed as an expansion of Soviet influence as Communism became embraced in Europe and Asia. His failed policy of the Great Leap Forward resulted in mass starvation and is viewed as an epic failure in planning at the highest levels. Over time, many became disillusioned with the “Cultural Revolution” as the reality of a Communist government drearily set in. Mao, seemingly impervious to the deadly effects of his actions, continued to live the opulent lifestyle he had created for himself as the new leader of China. And the “Closed Door” policy afforded him with a shield to protect his empire from the prying eyes of the western hemisphere. But Mao’s meeting with President Richard M. Nixon in 1972 offered a glimmer of hope that the two world powers could form a bond that would in turn bring the two countries together through mutual understanding. Today relations between China and the United States remain tense and show no signs of changing in the foreseeable future. China continues to go through social change but the nation remains haunted by the legacy of Mao Zedong.

Propaganda plays a pivotal role in any ruler’s playbook. Mao created a very carefully crafted image of the supreme leader, unfazed by foreign governments and determined to change China by any means necessary. The public facade largely worked and even today, decades after his death, his name alone is enough to cause a change of expression during conversation. But behind the public facade, there existed another Mao who lived a life that could only be described as unorthodox. He had hired a personal physician, Dr. Li Zhisui to monitor his health and make any recommendations and/or changes when needed. Unbeknownst to the Dr. Zhisui, his left would never be the same again as he took a ringside seat to watch the show that was the private life of Chairman Mao. By his own admission, his wife urged him to write the book before her death. Knowing ahead of time that the publication of the book would require that he leave China, he embraced the project and pulls no punches, revealing the daily insanity that was Mao’s administration. From the beginning it becomes clear that Mao rules with an iron fist and those that serve him do so not out of low but mainly fear. To Mao, nearly all were talked tough were what he called “paper tigers” and he was not afraid to use force when necessary. His ruthless nature and shrewd mind tricks created a climate of suspicion and distrust that gripped everyone working in his inner circle. And as the doctor explains, the wrong words or even suspicions were enough for removal and in some cases far worse.

No story about Mao is complete without a word regarding his widow, Jiang Qing (1914-1991), who served as the Spouse of the Paramount Leader of China from 1949 until Mao’s death in 1976. A former actress, she married Mao on November 28, 1938 becoming his fourth wife. Their marriage and the tribulations contained therein, serve as the back story to the topic at hand. Mao’s infidelities and Qing’s insecurities are key issues in the book and a constant source of tension between her and his chosen physician. She serves as the books antagonist and a mental game of chess develops as she seeks out any chance to put the doctor in the cross hairs of suspicion. At times, the scenes are nothing short of comical and reveal the desperation in Qing’s actions. Her rage at Mao’s philandering were typically directed as other for she lacked the backing or resolve to directly challenge and change the nation’s leader. Following Mao’s death, she was convicted as part of the “Gang of Four” for treason and initially sentenced to death before her sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. She died in 1991 after taking her own life while suffering from the effects of throat cancer.

If there is one section of the book that hits home with the reality of Mao’s callousness, it is the doctor’s comments about Mao’s true purpose behind the Great Leap Forward. In fact, it might seem unreal to some readers at first but Dr. Zhisui was there next to Mao witnessing firsthand the Chairman’s erratic behavior. And there is a high probability that Mao never intended for the Great Leap Forward to succeed in any shape form or fashion. There are many cold hard truths in this book but to understand Mao Zedong, his public and personal life must be examined and it is here that Dr. Zhisui has written the best account of crazy, unorthodox and complicated life of Mao Zedong. Highly recommended.

ISBN-10: 0679764437
ISBN-13: 978-0679764434

Biographies